Chapter 13 Pain Meds Chapter 13 Pain

Term Definition
Most common complaint in primary care facilities Chronic pain
Pain that has persisted for more than 5 years either as constant pain or persistent flare ups Chronic pain
Often accompanies pain syndromes Depression
Two types of chronic pain Somatic, neuropathic
What is somatic pain Activated of pain receptors in skin and musculoskeletal tissue
What is neuropathic pain Caused by disease or injury to peripheral nerves or their ganglia
Common causes of somatic pain Back problems and degenerative joint disease
Found in elderly adults and associated with collapsed vertebrae and stress fractures Osteoporsis
Assessment of pain should include type, location, severity
progressive levels of pain mild, moderate, severe
counterirritants topical therapy that may sting locally when applied
rescue drug shorter acting drug used for break through pain
treatments for mild pain acetaminophen, aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or nonopioid analgesic
side effects of NSAIDS GASTRIC ULCER
Physical dependence Condition in which the patient requires continued use of a drug for proper functioning and would experience withdrawal symptoms if it were discontinued/ long term effects of opioids
Pseudoaddiction Describe the drug-seeking behaviors that may occur when a patient's pain is under treated
Withdrawal Syndrome when a drug-dependent person discontinues the drug suddenly
Side effects of opioids Respiratory depression, constipation, sleepiness, dry mouth, nausea and vomiting
Somatic symptoms of chronic pain Change in appetite, change in weight, loss of energy, motor retardation, and sleep disturbance
EXAMPLES OF NEUROPATHIC PAIN diabetic, herpes pain, etc
Coanalgesic Drugs that may be used to enhance pain relief
Examples of coanalgesics Anticonvulsant drugs, benzodiazepines, glucocorticoids, local a esthetics, agents for metastic bone pain, skeletal muscle relaxants, spinal cord stimulator implant, intrathecal pump implant, tricyclic antidepressants
Examples of anticonvulsant drugs used with pain Carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, sodium valproate, taiga binge, topiramate
Examples of benzodiazepines used for pain Clonazepam, diazepam and lorazepam
Examples of glucocorticoids used in pain Dexamethasone and prednisone
Examples of local anesthetics used in pain management Capsaicin and lidocaine
Examples of agents used for metastic bone pain Bisphosphonates and radiotherapy
Examples of skeletal muscle relaxants Carisprodol, cyclobenzaprine and orphenadrine
Examples of tricyclic antidepressants used in pain Amitriptyline, desipramine, do epic, imipramine, nortriptyline
Glucocorticoids May relieve nerve or spinal cord compression by reducing edema in tumor and nerve tissue
Anticonvulsant drugs Reduce the spontaneous "firing" of central motor neurons that cause seizures
Skeletal muscle relaxants Useful in preventing pain from muscle spasms; they are sedating and may have anticholinergic side effects as well
Tricyclic antidepressants Used for treatment of neuropathic pain and their antidepressant activity; should be used with other analgesics; may promote better night's sleep
Side effects of tricyclic antidepressants Dry mouth; urinary retention, constipation, sedation orthodontic hypotension
Parts of a patient medication use agreement 1. Informed consent. 2. Drug testing.