nutrition animal science

Term Definition
abonmasum last compartment of ruminant stomach where low pH protein digestion occurs. similar function to the monogastric stomach including emptying into small intestine.
adenosine diphosphate molecule involved in short-term energy storage that cells use to captures energy. the molecule contains three phosphates.
adenosine triphosphate molecule involved in short-term energy storage that cells use to store energy. the molecule contains three phosphates.
ADP molecule involved in short-term energy storage that cells use to captures energy. the molecule contains two phosphates.
amine group organic compound containing nitrogen; any of a group of compounds formed from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by organic radicals.
amino acid molecules that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with an amine group (contains N) and a carboxyl group.
amylase enzyme that breaks a 1-4 bonds that bind glucose units in cellulose
anus terminal end of digestive tract that functions to control the expulsion of feces
anabolism chemical modifications that occur inside the body where larger molecules are made from smaller molecules.
ATP molecule involved in short-term energy storage that cells use to store energy. the molecule contains three phosphates.
beak external anatomical structure of poultry which is used for eating and for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship and feeding young.
carbohydrate organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with a hydrogen to oxygen ration of 2:1. this is the same ratio of water.
carboxylic group univalent radical group (COOH) characteristic of all organic acids.
carnivore animals that utilize animal tissue as their main source of nutrients.
catabolism chemical modification that occur inside the body where molecules are broken down
cecum portion of large intestine composed of a blind pouch where microbial fermentation occurs.
cellulase enzyme that breaks b 1-4 bonds that bond glucose units in cellulose
cellulose polysaccharide consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by b 1-4 bonds and is a structural component of primary cell walls of green plants
chemical energy energy located in bonds that is used to hold elements together to make molecules.
cloaca common passage area for reproductive, urinary, and digestive system.
colon connects small intestine to anus where water absorption and microbial fermentation occurs.
concentrate feeds that are high in digestible nutrients and low in fiber.
crop thin-walled expanded portion of the esophagus in poultry used for the storage of food prior to digestion.
DE energy that is digested and absorbed from the digestive tract.
denaturation process in which proteins lose their tertiary and secondary structure by application of some external stress or compound including strong acids or bases, inorganic salts, organic solvent, or heat.
digestibility estimate of the percentage of nutrients that are broken down in the digestive tract and absorbed from GIT.
digestible energy energy that is digested and absorbed from the digestive tract.
digestion processes involved in breakdown of nutrients to components that can be absorbed into the animal.
digestive tract group of organs that are responsible for chemical and mechanical breakdown of feed to compounds that can be absorbed into the body.
disaccharide carbohydrate composed of two simple sugars
doudenum first section of the small intestine and is where the pancreatic ducts and bile ducts empty digestive aids including buffers to raise low pH digesta
enzyme protein molecules that catalyze or increase the rate of chemical reactions
esophagus muscular tube which connects the mouth to the stoamch through food passes after swallowing
fat organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that are insoluble in water. amount of O is much less then the amount of H
fatty acid long chain of hydrocarbons derived with a single carboxylic group and aliphatic tail that play a critical role in structure and metabolism of plant and animal.
feed an edible material that provides nutrients source for biological systems
feedstuff any material that is used as a nutrient source for biological systems
fiber component of feeds that is high in cellulose and requires microbial enzymes for digestion.
food an edible material that provides nutrients to biological systems. typically used to describe human or companion animal feedstuff
forage plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) consumed by ruminants and hind-gut fermented and is high in fiber.
gestation requirement nutrients required to maintain and grow the fetus
gizzard thick muscular wall organ in poultry where grinding occurs
glycogen polysaccharide consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by a 1-4 bonds, is a long-term energy storage in animal cells and is made primarily by the liver and muscles.
grain a small, dry, one-seeded fruit of a cereal grass, having the fruit and the seed walls united and usually high in starch
gross energy heat released from breaking all chemical bonds in a molecule.
growth requirement nutrients required for tissue growth
heat form of chemical energy that is lost from metabolism
heat increment energy lost as heat due to the inefficiencies of metabolic pathways
heat of fermentation energy lost as heat during fermentation
herbivore animals that utilize plants as their main source of nutrients
hind-gut fermenter animal with one compartment stomach where gastric digestion occurs but have well developed large intestine where significant microbial fermentation occurs
hydrophillic water loving or compound that mixes readily with water
hydrophobic water hating or compound that does not readily mix with water
ileum last section of the small intestine that is separated from the large intestine by the ileocecal valve
immature stage where an animal has not reached it genetic potential from body weight
intake process of taking nutrients into the digestive system
intake energy amount of gross energy (GE) consumed
jejunum middle section of the small intestine where a significant amount of nutrients are absorbed
lactation nutrients required for milk production
large intestine organ that function to absorb water from indigestible food matter and process undigested feed for excretion
liver multi-function organ that produces enzymes for secretion into the small intestine and process nutrients absorbed form small intestine. and organ that has both digestive and metabolic function.
maintenance requirement nutrients used to maintain body functions including tissue repair, temperature control, water balance, and organ function.
mature stage where and animal had reached its genetic potential for body weight
ME corrects for energy lost in feces, and energy lost to metabolic waste created by the body.
metabolic water water that is produced from metabolic reaction
metabolism all processes of chemical modifications that occur inside the body or at the cellular level.
metabolizable energy corrects for energy lost in feces, and energy lost to metabolic waste created by the body.
microbial protein protein that is produced by and is found in microbes
microorganism one cell organism including bacteria, protozoa, yeast and fungi
milling by-product residue from milling of grains and oil seed that are typically used for ruminant feeds
minerals inorganic nutrient required in small amounts (grams or less) and are required for life.
moisture chemical molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds that is and essential nutrient for farm animals
monograstic animals having only one stomach compartment where low pH protein digestion occurs; examples are humans, poultry, and swine.
monosaccharide simplest form of carbohydrate, thus cannot be split into smaller units; one saccharide
mouth first portion of the digestive tract that receives food and begins digestion by mechanically breaking up the solid food particles into smaller pieces and mixing them wwith saliva.
net energy (NE) corrects for energy lost in feces, energy lost to metabolic waste, energy lost due to fermentation, and energy lost as heat increment
non-protein nitrogen (NPN) inorganic nitrogen that can converted to protein by microorganisms during fermentation and used by the animal if it is broken down to amino acids in the digestive tract.
Nutrient any chemical compound that aids in the support of life
nutrient requirement amount of a given nutrient required of a specific function such as maintenance, growth, milk production, etc.
nutrition the study of all aspects of the processes by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for maintenance and production.
omasum third compartment of the stomach where water absorption and some muscular grinding occurs
omivore animals that utilize both plant and animal tissue as sources of nutrients.
oxidization process where oxygen is added to a molecule and in many cases, energy is given off from the reaction
pancreas organ that produces digestive enzymes and buffers for secretion into the small intestine and has endocrine functions that regulate blood glucose
parasitic relationship relationship where one organism lives off of another organism to its exclusive benefits.
peptide bond chemical bond between the amine group of 1 amino acid and the carboxylic group of another amino acid
polysaccharide polymeric carbohydrate structures formed of repeating units of simple sugars
predator animal that captures and consumes other animals to provide nutrients for its maintenance and growth
prey animals that are captured and consumed by other animals
product molecules that are the results of enzyme actions
protein naturally-occurring complex molecules containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and sometimes sulfur or phosphorus; they are made up of complex combinations of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
protein supplement feed that contain more than 30% protein and are often by-products of oil seed milling
proventriculus glandular portion of the stomach in poultry where HCL denatures protein and protease (pepsin) is secreted to start protein breakdown.
reticulum first stomach compartment where the lining has honey comb structure and where microbial fermentation occurs
roughage feeds that are high in fiber and typically lower in energy
rumen largest segment of stomach where microbial fermentation occurs via microbial enzymes but no mammalian enzymes are secreted and end products of fermentation are absorbed..
ruminant mammals that have 3 to 4 chambered stomach with microbial fermentation of feedstuff occurring prior to low pH protein digestion
scaccharide any of a series of sweet-tasting, crystalline carbohydrates.
small intestine organ where the vast majority of digestion of carbohydrates and fats occurs and where most absorption of nutrients takes place
starch polyaccharide consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by a 1-4 bonds and is produced by all green plants as an energy store.
stomach organ that initiates the second phase of digestion which secretes strong acids and protein-digesting enzymes.
substrate molecules that enzymes react with
symbiotic relationship relationship where two separate organisms live in an association where both organisms benefit
total digestible nutrient (TDN) energy system that accounts for digestibility of different nutrients
triglyceride ester derived from combining glycerol and three fatty acids and is the main constituent of vegetable oil and animal fats
vent terminal end of digestive system, reproductive system & urinary system in poultry.
ventriculus thick muscular wall organ in poultry where grinding occurs
volatile fatty acid (VFA) fatty acid with a carbon chain of five carbons or fewer normally produced by fermentation
vitamins organic nutrients required in small amounts (gram or less) and are required for life
water chemical molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds that is an essential nutrient for farm animals