Medical Terms

Term Definition
a, an without
hyper excessive, above normal
intra in, within
poly many, much
para near, beside, beyond
brady slow
bradycardia slow heart beat
tachy fast
toxic poison
stomat/or mouth
edema swelling
therm heat
derma/cutane skin
nephr/ren kidney
hepat liver
gastr stomach
-scope instrument for examining
-scopy visual examination
-graphy process of recording
-graph instrument for recording
plasty surgical repair
-itis inflammation
-algia, dynia pain
-plasia, -plasm growth, formation
-gen, -genesis forming, producing, origin
-rrhage, -rrhagia bursting forth
-pathy disease
-oma tumor
-emia blood condition
-iasis abnormal condition
-ectasis dilation, expansion
cardiology study of the heart
card heart
osteomyelitis inflammation of bone marrow
osteo bone
myel bone marrow
-plegia paralysis
para- abnormal, involving 2 parts
paraplegia paralysis of 2 lower limbs
hemi half / left & right
hemiplegia paralysis of one side of the body
quadri four
quadriplegia losing movement of the body
an without
algesis sense of pain
anesthesia loss of sensation or awareness
aesthesia sensation; feeling
erythro/o red
penia deficiency, decrease
anti against
biosis/bio life
bacteria living thing
-centesis surgical puncture
arthro joint
-ectomy excision, removal
-lysis separation, destruction, loosening
-plasty repair
-stomy forming an opening (mouth)
-tome instrument to cut
-tomy incision
osteotome cutting through bone
tracheotomy cutting/making hole through throat
-gram record, writing
-scope instrument used for examination
-algia pain
-cele hernia, swelling
emesis vomiting
hyperemisis extreme vomiting
emia blood condition
-malacia softening
-megaly enalargement
-osis abnormal condition, increase
cyanosis turning blue
pathy disease
myo muscle
penia decrease, deficiency
erythropenia deficiency of red blood cells
phagia swallowing, devouring
phasia speech
-plasia formation, growth
rrhea flow, discharge
-rrhage/-rrhagia bursting forth
-rrhexis rupture
arteri blood vessels
edema fluid retention
-ptosis prolapse, downward displacement
blepharoptosis upper eyelid
-spasm involuntary contraction, twitching
blephar/o eyelid
-sclerosis abnormal condition of Hardening
tub/ule small, minute
thrombus thrombi
ovum ova
fungus fungi
diagnosis diagnoses
pre before
peri around
post after
na+(___) +al (___) (birth) , (pertaining to)
epi above, upon, upper
infra under, below
inter between
hypo under, below, defiecient
hyper excessive, above normal
sub under
pre, pro before, infront of
post after, behind
retro backward, behind
primi first
mono, uni one
bi two
dipl,diplo double
tri three
quadri four
hemi/semi one half
multi, poly many, much
macro large
micro small
ab from, away, from
ad toward
circum around
dia, trans through, across
para near, beside, beyond
lateral away from midline/middle
medial towards midline/middle
ecto,exo,extra outside, outward
endo, intra in, within
super upper, above
supra above, excessive, superior
ultra excess, beyond
anti, contra againts
eu good, normal
eupnea normal breath
brady slow
dys painful,bad, difficult
hetero different
homo, homeo same
homeostasis equal balance
pan all
malnutrition bad nutrition
pseudo false
pseudocyesis false pregnancy
syn union, together, joined
synthesis join stuff together
tachy rapid
tachycardia rapid heartbeat
phlebo, veno veins
supine laying down facing upward
prone laying down facing downward
anterior front
posterior back
ventral front
dorsal back
medial close to the middle line
lateral away from the middle line
superior upper (above)
inferior lower
inversion inside
eversion outside
abduction away from mid line of the body
adduction towards mid line of the body
superficial close to the body surface
deep away from the body surface
proximal close to the point of attachment
distal away from the point of attachment
cranial brain
spinal spinal cord
thoracic ht, lungs, and associated organs
abdominopelvic digestive and reproduction organs and structures
homeostasis stable internal environment
morbid diseased; pertaining to disease
adhension abnormal binding (fibrous) of tissues that are normally separated
sepsis disease in blood or other tissues
febrile feverish; pertaining of fever
inflammation: what is the 4 body defenses against infection, allergy, injury? redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function
cyt/o cell
hist/o tissue
crani/o cranium (skull)
spin/o spine
cirrho/o, jaundo/o yellow
Idi/o unknown, peculiar
path/o disease
viscer/o internal organ
albin/o, leuk/o white
MRI Magnetic Resource Imaging
X-Ray Radiography
-ectomy excision, removal
oro, stomato mouth
glosso, linguo tongue
bucco cheek
sclero hardening
esophago esophagus
pharyngo pharynx
gastro stomach
entero intestine (S.I.)
jejuno jenjunum
duodeno duodenum
lleo lleum
append appendix
colo/ colono colon
recto rectum
procto anus/ rectum
ano anus
-iasis, -osis abnormal condition
megaly enlargement
orexia appetite
pepsia digestion
ex: pepsi soda helps with digestions
phagia swallowing/eating/devouring
prandial meal
rrhea discharge
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
NG nasogastric
NPO nothing by mouth
SGOT serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
TPN total parenteral nutrition
UGI upper gastrointestinal (series)
cheilitis chapped lips
aphagia refusal or inability to swallow
glossitis inflammation of the tongue
dysphagia difficulty swallowing
parotitis inflammation of parotid gland
esophagitis any inflammation of the esophagus
GERD Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
gastromegaly enlargement of the stomach
dyspepsia difficulty with digesting food
gastritis any stomach inflammation
gastroeteritis inflammation of both the stomach and small intestines
eructation belching to release gas
hematemesis vomiting of blood from the stomach
hiatal hernia protrusion of the stomach through an opening in the diaphragm
PMH Past Medical History
R/O Rule Out
Dx Diagnosis
Hx History
AC Before Meals
PC After Meals
IBD Inflammatory Bowel Disease
IBS Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Q every
QD daily
BID twice daily
TID three times daily
QID four times daily
HS bed time
PO by mouth
QOD every other day
NPO nothing by mouth
PRN as needed
QH every hour
Q2H, Q2 ° every 2 hours
Q AM/PM every morning/evening
LFT Liver Function Test
ALT Alanine Aminotransferase
AST Angiotensin Sensitivity
BM Bowel Movement
IBS Irritable Bowel Syndrome
GI Gastrointestinal
GB Gallbladder
HAV Hepatitis A Virus
HBV Hepatitis B Virus
HCV Hepatitis C Virus
HDV Hepatitis D Virus
NG Nasogatric
PUD Peptic Ulcer Disease
What are the 3 skin layers? epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous
What are the 3 accessory organs of the skin? glands, hair, and nails
adipo, lipo, steato fat
cutaneo, dermato, dermo skin
hidro, sudoro sweat
ichtyo dry, scaly
ichythyosis abnormal dry or scaly skin
melano black
ex: (melanoma, melanocyte)
myco fungus
onycho nail
ex: (onychomalacia)
pilo, tricho hair
abscess localized collection of pus at the site of an infection
acne inflammatory disease
alopecia baldness
echymosis bruise
hemorrhage rupture of blood vessels
petechia minute, pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin
purpura bleeding disorder
epidermis upper layer of skin
neoplasm (tumor) abnormal growth of tissue
benign Non-Cancerous
malignant Cancerous
metastasis spreading to different areas/parts of the body
cartilage tough, elastic connective tissue
cilia any hair-like structure
septum wall dividing 2 cavities
-naso/rhino nose
-sinus/o sinus, cavity
-Laryngo Larynx
-bronchia/broncho bronchus
-bronchiolo bronchiole
-pnea breathing, repiration
-pneumo, pneumono, pulmono air, lung
-oxi, -oxo oxygen
-pectoro, stetho, thoraco, thorax chest
-spiro breathe
ex:( spirometer)
-cyano blue
-ptysis spitting
-COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
-influenza flu
-myalagia muscle pain
MI Myocardial Infarction
ABG Arterial Blood Gas(es)
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CXR Chest X-Ray, Chest Radiography
DPT Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus
Hb, Hgb Hemoglobin
MDI Metered Dose Inhaler
PFT Pulmonary Function Test
RD Respiratory Distress Syndrome
TB Tuberculosis
URI Upper Respiratory Infection
Tachypnea rapid breathing
Bradypnea slow breathing
arterio artery
vascular vessels
system group of organs working together to perform a certain function
epicardium outermost layer
myocardium middle layer of muscular tissue
endocardium inner layer
Heart valves controls the blood flow within the heart, prevents the back flow of the blood into the heart
What are the 3 types of blood vessels? arteries, veins, and capillaries
BP Blood Pressure
angio, vasculo vessel
(usually lymph or blood)
arterio artery
hemangio blood vessel
phlebo, veno vein
sphyxia pulse
steno, stenosis narrowing, stricture
aorto aorta
sphygmo pulse
sclero hardening, sclera
(white of the eye)
cardiology treatment of cardiovascular disease
cardiologist physician who specializes in heart condition
arteriosclerosis hardening of arterial walls
thrombus clot
embolus dislodged mas
ex:(solid, liquid, or gas)
atherosclerosis disease caused by plaque build up in the artery
DVT Deep Vein Thrombosis
HDL High-Density Lipoprotein
LDL Low-Density Lipoprotein
CPK Creatine Phosphokinase
LDH Lactate Dehydrogenase
GOT Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase
CVD Cardio Vascular Disease
ischemia oxygen deficiency
angina chest pain
diaphoresis profuse sweating
pallor paleness
dyspnea labored breath
arrhythmia irregular heartbeat
ex:(tachycardia/bradycardia)
CHF Congestive Heart Failure
beta-blockers blocks effects of adrenaline on beta recept -or
calcium channel blockers blocks movement of CA++ (calcium)
diuretics removes excess water from the body
nitrates dilates blood vessels
AF Atrial Fibrillation
CA Cancer, Cardiac Arrest, Chronological Age
CAD Coronary Artery Disease
CCU Coronary Care Unit
CHD Coronary Heart Disease
CK Creatine Kinase
ex:(cardiac enzyme)
CV Cardiac Vascular
DVT Deep Vein Thrombosis
ETT Exercise Tolerance Test
HF Heart Failure
MI Myocardial Infarction
HDL High Density Lipoprotein
LDL Low Density Lipoprotein
HTN Hypertension
SOB Shortness Of Breath
CHF Congestive Heart Failure
Antiarrhythmics prevents, alleviates, or corrects Arrhythmia
statins used to lower cholesterol in the blood
cardiac arrest heart stops
hematopoiesis formation of the blood
RBC Red Blood Cells
WBC White Blood Cells
NK Natural Killer Cells
Lymph a fluid
adeno gland
agglutino red
leuk white
hemo/hemato blood
Lympho Lymph
Lymphangia Lymph vessel
morpho shape
phago swallowing, eating
CBC Complete Blood Count
ESR Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
anticoagulants prevents blood from clotting
hemostatic stops bleeding
coagulants; clotting agents aid in clotting of the blood
thrombolytic dissolves blood clots
antiviral used to blocks virus growth
antimicroorganism agents used to prevent PCP (Pneumocytis Carinii Pneumonia)
antihistamines used to control allergy symptoms and various other conditions
ADH Antidiuretic
hypoglycemia low blood sugar, hard to control
hyperglycemia high blood sugar
goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland
D.I. Diabetes Insipidus
D.M. Diabetes Mellitus
IDDM Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
NIDDM Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
hyperglycemia too much glucose in blood
hypoglycemia low glucose in blood
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
ADH Antidivretic Hormone
DI Diabetes Insipidus
HRT Hormone Replacement Therapy
GH Growth Hormone
K Potassium
NPH Neutral Protamine Hagedorn
PTH Parathyroid Hormone
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormones
TFT Thyroid Function Test
T3 Triiodothyronine
T4 Thyroxine
acromegaly chronic metabolic disorder
acro extremity
-megaly enlargement
GTT Glucose Tolerance Test
Para Abnormal, involving 2 parts
Paraplegia Paralysis of 2 lower limbs
Hemi Half/Left & Right
Hemiplegia Paralysis of one side of the body
Quadri Four
Quadriplegia Losing movement of body
An Without
Algesis Sense of pain
Erythro/o Red
Penia Deficiency, Decrease
Anti Against
Bio/ Biosis Life
Bacteria Living thing
Centesis Surgical puncture
Arthro Joint
-ectomy Excision, removal
Lysis Separation, destruction, loosening
Plasty Repair
-stomy Forming an opening (mouth)
Anti- Water-Pills
What are the 3 types of Insuline? 1.) Nutritional
2.) Correctional
3.) Basal
Osteocytes Bone cells
Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells
Osteoclasts Responsible for reabsorbing dead bone cells
What are the 3 things that Ossification depend on? 1.) Calcium
2.) Vitamin D
3.) Phosphorus

*Calcium & Vitamin D always go together, in order for body to process it. *

Long bones Femur
Short bones Wrist bones
Flat bones Skull
Irregular bones Vertebrae
Sesamoid bone Knee cap
3 types of Insuline 1.) Nutritional
2.) Correctional
3.) Basal
Osteocytes Bone cells
Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells
Osteoclasts Responsible for reabsorbing dead bone cells
What does Ossification depend on? 1.) Calcium
2.) Vitamin D
3.) Phosphorus
Long bones Femur
Short bones Wrist bones
Flat bones Skull
Irregular bones Vertebrae
Sesamoid bone Knee cap
Anti Water-pills
Ankyl(o) Bent
Arthr(o) Joint
Brachi(o) Arm
Calcane(o) Heel
Carp(o) Wrist
Cephal(o) Head
Chondr(o) Cartilage
Kyph(o) Hump
My(o) Spinal cord; bone marrow
Pod(o) Foot
Oste(o) Bone
Phalang(o) Finger or toe bone
Scoli(o) Curved
Spondyl(o) Vertebra
Ten(o) Tendon
Uln(o) Ulnar
ROM Range Of Motion
OA Osteoarthritis
RA Rheumatoid Arthritis
IM Intramuscular