OA Arteries & Veins OA L4:Arteries&Veins

Question Answer
Artery definition… carry blood away from the heart and supply blood to structures
Vein definition… carry blood toward the heart and receive blood nearby structures
What is Arterial Anastomasis? Arteries that do not follow the "classic" circulation pattern; two arteries join together to "feed" an anatomical area
What is Arteriovenous Malformation? direct connection of arterial and venous circulation; distributed throughout the body usually in smaller vessels
Tunica Intima endothelial cells and is the structure of the artery that is closest to the blood and contains subendothelial layer of lose C.T.
Tunica Media smooth muscle cells and is the middle structure of an artery; it has elastic and collagen fibers
What separates the Tunica Intima and the Tunica Media? Internal elastic laminas
Tunica Adventitia collagenous and elastic fibers and it is the outer most layer
What separates the Tunica Media and the Tunica Adventitia? External elastic lamina
Vasa Vasorum vessel inside vessel
What are the major arteries from the heart? Aortic arch: (right) Brachiocephalic artery=Right common carotid and right subclavian artery. (left)=left common carotid and left subclavian artery
The common carotid artery divides into what arteries and where? Divide at level of thyroid cartilage into the internal and external carotid arteries which supply most of the blood to the head and neck region
To what structures does the internal carotid artery provide blood? to intracranial structures like the meninges of the brain, eye, orbit and lacrimal gland
How many branches does the external carotid artery have and what are they? 8; superior thyroid, ascending pharyngeal, lingual, facial, occipital, posterior auricular, maxillary and superficial temporal
To what structures does the external carotid artery provide blood? to extracranial tissues including the oral cavity
Vessels arise from what aspects of the external carotid artery? from anterior, medial, posterior and terminal aspects
Which are the anterior and medial branches of the external carotid artery? Anterior: superior thyroid, lingual and facial;
Medial: Ascending pharyngeal
Which are the posterior and terminal branches of the external carotid artery? Posterior: occipital and posterior auricular;
Terminal: superficial temporal and maxillary
What is the order of the branches of the external carotid from the heart to the terminal? superior thyroid, ascending pharyngeal, lingual, facial, occipital, posterior auricular, maxillary and superficial temporal (SALFOPMS)
Which arteries does the superior thyroid artery supply to? Infrahyoid artery, sternocleidomastoid artery, superior laryngeal artery and cricothyroid artery
What artery is the smallest branch of the external carotid artery? the ascending pharyngeal artery
What structures does the ascending pharyngeal artery supply with blood? pharyngeal walls, soft palate and meninges
What structures does the lingual artery supply with blood? suprahyoid muscles, floor of the mouth and tongue
The lingual artery branches into how many arteries and what are the two we know? 4; the two are the sublingual artery and deep lingual artery
What areas does the sublingual artery supply with blood? sublingual salivary gland, mylohyoid muscle, mucous membranes and lingual gingiva
What muscles does the deep lingual artery supply with blood? tongue muscles
What are the 5 main branches of the facial artery? Ascending palatine, submental, inferior labial, superior labial and angular artery
What structures does the ascending palatine artery supply with blood? soft palate, palatine muscles and tonsils
What structures does the submental artery supply with blood? submandibular salivary gland and lymph nodes, mylohyoid and digastric muscles
What structures does the inferior labial artery supply with blood? lower lip and some depressor muscles of the facial expressions
What structure does the superior labial artery supply with blood? upper lip
What structure does the angular artery supply with blood? tissues lateral to nose
Which facial artery branch is the terminal? angular artery
Where is the occipital artery located? posterior and superior to the ascending ramus of the mandible
What structures does the occipital artery supply with blood? posterior scalp, suprahyoid muscles, sternocleidomastoid muscle and meninges
What artery is the most superior branch of the external carotid artery except for the terminal branches? Posterior Auricular Artery
What structure does the posterior auricular artery supply with blood and what does it help with? supplies to internal portion of the ear and it helps with balance and hearing
What artery is the smallest of the terminal branches of the external carotid artery? superficial temporal artery
What structures does the superficial temporal artery supply with blood? parotid gland, temporalis muscle and frontal & parietal scalp
Which artery is the largest from the terminal branches of the external carotid artery? maxillary artery
About how many branches does the maxillary artery have? 15
What structures does the maxillary artery supply with blood? muscles of mastication, oral and nasal cavities (teeth and surrounding tissues)
What are the names of the regions of the maxillary artery? Infratemporal and pterygopalatine
What are the branches in the maxillary artery in the infratemporal region? Middle meningeal, inferior alveolar, mylohyoid, deep temporal, pterygoid branches, masseteric, and buccal
What structure does the middle meningeal artery supply with blood? meninges
What structures does the inferior alveolar artery supply with blood? posterior teeth of the mandible, gingiva and periodontium
What are the two terminal branches of the Inferior alveolar artery? Incisive and mental arteries
What structures does the incisive artery supply with blood? mandibular anterior teeth, periodontal and gingiva
What structure does the mental artery supply with blood? tissues of the chin
What structures does the mylohyoid artery supply with blood? floor of the mouth and mylohyoid muscle
What structure does the deep temporal supply with blood? temporalis muscle
What structures does the pterygoid branches supply with blood? medial and lateral pterygoids
What structure does the masseteric artery supply with blood? masseter muscle
What structure does the buccal artery supply with blood? buccinator
What are the branches of the maxillary artery in the pterygopalatine region? Posterior superior alveolar, infraorbital, anterior superior alveolar, descending palatine and sphenopalatine
What structures does the posterior superior alveolar artery supply with blood? maxillary posterior teeth and surrounding structures, maxillary sinus
What structures does the infraorbital artery supply with blood? upper lip and lower eyelid
What structures does the anterior superior alveolar artery supply with blood? anterior teeth of the maxilla and the perio and gingival tissues
What are the 2 arteries created by the descending palatine artery? Greater and lesser palatine arteries
What structure does the greater palatine artery supply blood? one quadrant of palatal gingiva and palatal hard tissue
What structure does the lesser palatine artery supply blood? soft tissue posterior to its foramen
Which artery is the termination of the maxillary artery? Sphenopalatine
The sphenopalatine is anastomose with what artery? Greater palatine artery.
The Posterior Superior Aveolar artery is anastomoses with what artery? Anterior Superior Aveolar
What is the difference between the structures of the veins and the arteries? The tunica media and adventitia are not as developed in veins as they are in arteries and there is no internal elastic lamina
Veins are located in what form? Neurovascular bundles
How much of circulating blood volume does the vein vessels hold? 70%
Veins are potential in spreading…. Infections
Valves arise from what vein structure? Tunica A­ntima, but we don't have a lot in the head and neck area
Facial Vein (I.J.) collects from which veins? Supratrochlear, supraorbital, ophthalmic and cavernous venous sinus
Where does the facial vein drain into? The pterygoid plexus of veins
The retromandibular vein (E.J.) is created by? Union of superficial temporal vein and maxillary vein
Retromandibular vein collects from which vein? Posterior auricular vein
What does the retromandibular vein become and with which vein does it anastomoses with? Becomes the external jagular vein with anastomosis to internal jagular vein
Posterior Superior Aveolar and inferior alveolar both drain to what? Pterygoid plexus
Inferior and superior labial will drain to what vein? Facial vein
The external jagular drains what? Small portion of extracranial tissues
Which jagular vein is bigger, internal or external? Internal Jagular vein
The internal jagular vein drains what? The brain and most head and neck tissues
External jagular vein drains into what veins? Subclavian veins
Internal jagular veins merge with subclavians to create what? Branchiocephalic veins
Branchiocephalics join to create what and leads to where? Superior vena cava and it leads to the heart
Venous Sinuses are located where? Brain
Venous sinuses channel blood from what to what? From cerebral veins usually to the internal jagular
Venous sinuses collect from? Cavernous sinus
What is cavernous sinus thrombosis? Infected clot
Major veins that drain teeth anastomose with what? Cavernous sinus
Cavernous sinus thrombosis causes what symptoms? Fever, drowsiness and tachycardia
Lost of VI function leads to what? Diplopia
The first branch of external carotid is? Superior thyroid artery
These vessels have a prominent muscle layer… Artery
Nosebleeds commonly occur from what vessel? Sphenopalatine artery
What is the first major branch of the aorta? Branchiocephalic artery
What does the baroreceptor do and where is it located? It monitors blood pressure and it is located by the bifurcation of internal and external carotid arteries
What is more varied, veins or arteries? Veins
Where is a likely place an improper injection can cause a hematoma? Pterygoid plexus of veins
Maxillary Vein collects from what? Pterygoid plexus of veins
Pterygoid plexus of veins that drain to the maxillary vein receives blood from…. Middle meningeal, posterior superior alveolar and inferior alveolar
Maxillary Vein (E. J.) drains to….. Retromandibular vein