Question Answer
What is an antecedent stimulus? Discriminative Stimulus. Stimulus Delta. Prompt
What is an SD? An antecedent stimulus that set the occasion for a behavior to be likely to be reinforced.
What is an S delta? An antecedent stimulus that acts as a cue that a behavior will not be reinforced.
(1) What is stimulus discrimination training? (2) What is the outcome? 1. Process of developing stimulus control. Reinforce a behavior only in the presence of an SD. Reinforcement and extinction are used.
2. Stimulus control. The behavior is more likely to occur in the presence of an SD than a S-delta
(1) Define stimulus discrimination and (2) provide a novel example 1. Behavior occurring in the presence of SD, but not S-delta.
2. Kids playing "red light, green light"
*Define a reflex A response elicited by an antecedent stimulus
Provide a definition of respondent conditioning using an example. Specify US, UR, NS, CS, CR, the process and the outcome. Manipulation of antecedent stimuli. US(food) UR(salivate) NS(bell) -> CS(bell) CR(salivate)
Describe the factors that influence the effectiveness of respondent conditioning. (6) 1. Salience 2. Intensity of Stimulus 3. Timing of NS/US 4. Consistent pairing 5. Number of Pairings 6. Previous Exposure to the NS
Define and comment on the effectiveness of the following. 1. Delay Conditioning. 2. *Trace Conditioning. 3. Simultaneous Conditioning. 4.Backward Conditioning. 1. NS > US (before NS ends) (most effective)
2. NS > US (after NS ends) (most effective)
3. NS + US (same time) (somewhat effective)
4. US > NS (least effective)
Describe higher-order conditioning using an example. NS + CS. Clicker training
(1) Define shaping. (2) Provide a novel example (3) (include criteria of when to use shaping) 1. Differential reinforcement of successive approximations towards a target behavior. Can happen naturally, or intentionally. Involves reinforcement and extinction.
2. Playing the game "hot or cold"
3. Develop new topographies/dimensions of behavior.
When is it appropriate to use shaping? When instructions/modeling/prompting don't work.
What are 2 characteristics of the starting behavior in a shaping procedure? 1. Person must already exhibit the starting behavior.
2. Must be a behavior you can build on to achieve the target behavior.
Provide an example of how a problem behavior may be developed through shaping Giving in to tantrums
Provide an example of the typical implementation of shaping. Lever pressing. Define target behavior (and determine if shaping is appropriate). Identify starting behavior. Choose shaping steps. Choose reinforcer. Reinforce successive approximations.
Describe how an extinction burst may play a role in shaping Extinction bursts cause variability in behavior to occur
Define (1) prompt and (2) distinguish between stimulus prompts and response prompts. 1. antecedent stimulus or event that controls a response. Gets the behavior to occur in the proper context so the behavior can be reinforced.
2. Response: Prompts via person. Stimulus: within or extrastimulus. Change, or add stimulus.
*Describe 4 types of response prompts and fading procedures associated with these. Most to least intrusive: physical, model, gestural, verbal
(1) What is the transfer of stimulus control and (2) why is it important? 1. Getting the behavior to occur in the presence of the natural SD without prompts.
2. To enable the behavior to occur in the proper context independently
(1) Describe a behavioral chain and (2) provide a novel example 1. A sequence of behaviors.
2. Cooking
(1) What is a task analysis and (2) why is it important when teaching a behavioral chain? 1. Identification of all stimuli (SDs) and responses in a behavioral chain.
2. There are minor details we often overlook
(1) How are backward chaining and forward chaining similar (2) and how are they different? 1. They both train sequences of behavior, and require a task analysis. Prompting/fading is required for both
2. Forwards starts from the start, backwards starts from the end. Backwards can be easier to start because it is reinforced from the first step.
Describe the total task procedure Execute the whole s-r chain in each training trial. Use graduated guidance in each trial. Fade to shadowing, then fade shadowing. Useful when the chain is not too long/complex
*When is it (1) appropriate to use a chaining procedure and (2) when is it not? 1. When the behavior is a "can't do" problem
2. When the behavior is a "won't do" problem
Describe the 4 components of BST 1. Instructions 2. Modeling 3. Rehearsal 4. Feedback
Describe the factors that influence the effectiveness of (1) Instructions (2) Modeling 1. Must be able to understand the learner. Teacher must be credible. Learner must pay attention.
2. Model must have high status or similarity. Model must be reinforced. Complexity is appropriate for the learner. Proper context. Variety of exemplars.
For what types of skills is BST most appropriate? parenting/assertiveness/abduction prevention/social/gun play prevention. New behaviors that can be simulated via role play. Learner must be able to follow instructions and imitate model.
*Identify and describe 4 possible (and common) categories of behavioral functions Positive/negative social/automatic
Identify and describe three major methods for conducting a functional assessment of a problem behavior 1. Indirect Observation
2. Direct Observation
3. Functional Analysis
Distinguish between (1) direct and (2) indirect methods of functional assessment and describe the pros and cons of each 1. Observation using ABC data. Objective
2. Interview/questionnaire. Subjective/memory based
Why is generalization important in a behavior modification program? So the behaviors occurs in all the appropriate circumstances; not just in those like the training situation
Identify and describe the 7 (first 5) strategies for promoting generalization 1. Reinforce instances of generalization
2. Train skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement
3. Modify natural contingencies
4. Incorporate wide range of relevant stimulus situations
5. Incorporate common stimuli
Identify and describe the 7 (last 2) strategies for promoting generalization 6. Teach a range of functionally equivalent responses
7. Incorporate self-generated mediators of generalization.
Describe the factors that influence the effectiveness of (1) Rehearsal (2) Feedback 1. Occurs immediately after instructions and modeling. Proper context. Immediate reinforcers/praise. Work from easy to hard behaviors/situations.
2. Praise correct behavior immediately (always must be something to praise) and be descriptive.