Chapter 5 – Cooper ABA

Term Definition
Validity the extent to which data obtained from measurement are directly relevant to the target behavior and the reason for measuring it (measuring what you want to measure)
Accuracy the extent to which observed values of data collected match the event that was observed
Observed Value the quantitative label produced by measuring an event (data collected)
True Value A measure obtained by procedures that are independent of the procedures that produced the data being evaluated and for which the researcher has taken “extraordinary precautions to insure that all possible sources of error have been avoided or removed”
Measurement Bias error in measurement that is likely to be in one direction
Reliability the consistency of measurement to the extent to which repeated measurement of the same event yields the same values
Direct Measurement the behaviors of interests are the exact behaviors being measured (direct observation)
Indirect Measurement when what is actually measured is in some way different from the target behavior (questionnaires, parent report)
Continuous Measurement the form of measurement in which all instances of the response class of interest are detected and recorded during the observation period
Discontinuous Measurement the form of measurement in which some instance of the response class of interest may not be detected
Observer Drift any unintended change in the way an observer uses a measurement system over the course of an investigation that results in measurement error; often entails a shift in the observers interpretation of the original definitions of target behavior
Naive Observer an observer who is unaware of the study’s purpose and/or experimental conditions in effect during a given phase or observation period. Data obtained by a __________ are less likely to be influenced by observers’ expectations
Observer Reactivity influence on the data reported by an observer that results from the observer’s awareness that others are evaluating the data he reports
Calibration any procedure used to evaluate the accuracy of a measurement system, and when sources of error re found, to use the information to correct or improve the measurement system
Interobserver Agreement (IOA) the degree to which two or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events
Believability the extent to which the researcher convinces themselves and others that the data are trustworthy and deserve interpretation (IOA most commonly used to index)
Total Count IOA based on comparing the total count recorded by each observer per measurement period; calculated by dividing the smaller number by the larger number and multiplying by 100% (simplest indicator of IOA for event recording data)
Mean Count-Per-Interval IOA the average percentage of agreement between the counts reported by two observers in a measurement period comprised of a series of smaller counting times (more conservative that Total Count IOA)
Exact Count-Per-Interval IOA the percentage of total intervals in which two observers recorded the same count (most stringent description of IOA for most data sets obtained by event recording)
Trial-By-Trial IOA an IOA index for DT data based on comparing the observers’ counts (0 or 1) on a trial-by-trial, or item-by-item basis (more conservative and meaningful than Total Count IOA)
Total Duration IOA used to calculate IOA for total duration measurement; calculated by dividing the shorter duration by the longer duration and multiplying by 100
Mean Duration-Per-Occurrence IOA an IOA index for duration per occurrence data; calculated by computing the average percentage of agreement of the durations reported by two observers for each occurrence of the target behavior (more conservative and meaningful for total duration data)
Interval-By-Interval IOA (Point-To-Point) an index of IOA obtained by interval recording or time sampling (calculated by comparing the 2 observers recordings of the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the bx in each interval and dividing the # of agreement intervals by the total # of intervals x 100
Scored-Interval IOA an IOA index based ONLY on the intervals in which either observer recorded the occurrence of the behavior; use for behaviors that occur at low rates because it ignores the intervals in which agreement by chance is highly likely
Unscored-Interval IOA an IOA index based ONLY on the interval in which either observer recorded the nonoccurrence of the behavior; recommended to use for behaviors that occur at high rates because it ignores the intervals in which agreement by chance is highly likely
Calculate Scored-Interval IOA calculated by dividing the # of intervals in which the 2 observers agreed that the bx occurred by the # of intervals in which one or both observers recording the occurrence of the bxand multiply by 100
Calculate Unscored-Interval IOA calculated by dividing the number of intervals in which the two observers agreed that the behavior did not occur by the number of intervals in which one or both observers recording the nonoccurrence of the behavior and multiply by 100