Trades of 13 colonie

Question Answer
Name of colonial trade:1 Apothecary
Name of colonial trade:2 Wigmaker
Name of colonial trade:3 Harness and Saddle Maker
Name of colonial trade:4 Blacksmith
Name of colonial trade:5 Miliner
Name of colonial trade:6 Hatter
Name of colonial trade:7 Cooper
Name of colonial trade:8 Mason
Name of colonial trade:9 Printer
Name of colonial trade:10 Cobbler
Name of colonial trade:11 Tavern Keeper
Name of colonial trade:12 Wheelwright
Name of colonial trade:13 Candlemaker
Name of colonial trade:14 Gunsmith
Name of colonial trade:15 General Store
Name of colonial trade:16 Silversmiths
Name of colonial trade:17 Religion in the colonies
Go to picture sorter on paper
21st century equivalent: Apothecary Pharmacist (i.e. CVS, Walgreens, first care)
21st century equivalent: Wigmaker Hairstylist (i.e. Cozmos, the hair lounge, lavish salon)
21st century equivalent: Harness and Saddle Maker Leather smith (i.e. Bader, common wealth shoe and leather company, and demar leather company)
21st century equivalent: Blacksmith Metal worker (i.e. Sumitomo metals, metalsmiths sterling, nippon steel & sumitomo metal)

21st century equivalent: Milliner Clothing stores (i.e. Macy's, fashion nova, Windsor)
21st century equivalent: Hatter hat manufacturer (i.e. new era, goorin bros, manta)
21st century equivalent: Cooper Basket manufacturer (i.e. greenfield basket factory, longaberger, peterboro)
21st century equivalent: Mason cement makers (i.e. Buzzi, Sinoma, and Cemex)
21st century equivalent: Printer Publishers or post offices (i.e. new York times, United states postal service, pearson)
21st century equivalent: Cobbler Shoemakers (i.e. under armour, adiddas, nike)
21st century equivalent: Tavern Keeper hotels or bar and grill restaurants (i.e. marriott, chilis, moores, american hotel)
21st century equivalent: Wheelwright Wheel or tire manufacturers (i.e. axis, vossen, goodyear)
21st century equivalent: Candlemaker Candle Maker (i.e. Brooklyn candle studio, Yankee Candle, candlewic)
21st century equivalent: Gunsmith Gunmakers (i.e. beemiller, savage arms, kimber)
21st century equivalent: General Store Grocery store (i.e. Wegmans, Acme, Costco)
21st century equivalent: Silversmith Jeweler (i.e. Kay, Jared, and Freehold)
21st century equivalent: Religion in 13 colonies All different religions (i.e. Judaism, Islam, Budhism)
What were apothecaries called? Doctors
What were the roles of the doctors? treated patients, made prescribed medicines, made house calls, and taught apprentices
What did the apothecaries craft their own remedies from? herbs, animal parts, and other mixtures
What other product did apothecaries sell? anchovies, toothbrushes, and tobacco
What were the two major medical problems for Apothecaries? Smallpox and malaria
How did they work when treating their patients, apothecary? Treated through apprenticeship
Did apothecaries attend medical school? Only few
Where were wig makers important? Affluent villages and cities. full of wealthy landowners and plantations
What did wig makers do? Made perukes (wigs), queues (hair pieces that hung from the back of the head), and fashioned the hair of the elite
What was ownership of a wig tied to? Social status
Who bought wigs for their slaves to wear? Wealthy plantation owners
What were the wigs made of? Horse, goat, or yak hair
What could skillful wig makers do? Customize a wig to the preferences of the customer or the styles popular in London
When were wig makers busy? When courts were in session because judges and attorneys needed specialized hair pieces
Who did the harness and saddle makers cater to? The rich
How long would it take , how much money would it be, and how long would it last to make a custom made harness? It could cost a months wages, It would take 30 hours to fashion, and it would last 25-30 years
What other leather goods did harness and saddle makers make? Couch cushions, pistol buckets, razor cases, cartridge cases, bags and pouches, water buckets, and horse riding accessories
What age did apprenticeship usually start? age 13
What did the apprentices have to learn? had to learn the complexities of cutting, stitching, and assembly that connected the horse to a carriage
What did the apprentices have to learn to use? thread that was made of flax, or hemp, and coated in beeswax
What tools did the apprentices learn to use? specialized knives, awls, and dividers that cut leather
What other saddles did the craftsman know how to make? side saddles for ladies, racing saddles, saddles for luggage called portmanteaus, and saddles for carriage drivers called postillons
knew how to make saddles of different….. colors, textures, and waterproofing strength
What indispensable items did the blacksmith make? horseshoes, pots, pans, and nails
what were the blacksmiths sometimes called? Farriers
What did the farriers make? numerous goods for farmers
What were the goods the farriers made for the farmers? axes plowshares, cowbells, hoes, hammers, candle holders, tools, files, locks, fireplace racks, and anvils.
Where was most of the blacksmith's work done? personal forge
What work was done in a black smiths personal forge? scalding bars of iron were hammered with heavy sledges to fashion the iron into various shapes.
What age did apprenticeships start for a blacksmith? 14-15 years
How long did apprenticeships last for blacksmiths? 7 years
What would apprentices do first? observe his master
What would the apprentices eventually do for blacksmiths? learn more complicated lasts
What were complicated tasks for blacksmiths? heating and bending iron
What is the last thing an apprentice would do for a blacksmith? asked with fashioning some kind of metal masterpiece that would be judges by his/her master
what would happen is the final masterpiece was adequate for blacksmith? would pass and become a journey man
what is a journey man for blacksmith? traveling blacksmith who would repair metal goods in nearby villages
what would happen if all went well during the journeyman career for blacksmith? The journey man would have earned enough money through his work, to open his own shop
what is a milliner a modern day clothing store
what could men and women shop for at a milliners fashionable clothes and accessories
What was interesting about the management of the milliners only business in colonial times that could be owned and managed by a woman
What did a milliner sell? fabric, hats, ribbons, hair pieces, dolls, jewelry, lottery tickets, games, and medicines
Where were most of the milliners items imported from? England
Who did the milliners hire? mantua makers
What were manuta makers in milliners? people who would craft customized outfits, costumes, dresses, and jackets for women
What jobs did tailors perform in milliners? similar jobs as the mantua workers for men
Why was the hat industry very important? Nearly everyone wore the same head covering
What did a mans hat advertise? His social status
what did more elaborate hats represent? greater wealth or status
What were colonial hats made of? beaver skin, wool, cotton, or straw
What different kind of hats did the colonial hatters know how to make? knitted caps, upturned brim-tricorne hatss, and most popular was broad-brimmed hats
Why was the hat industry one of the first that actually took business away from Great Britian? beaver furs were so numerous in the New World
What would become the epicenter of hat production in the colonies? Danbury and Connecticut
How many hats did a city produce one year? five million
What is carroting for hatters? washing the furs with a type of steaming hot, orange liquid
What was the liquid in carroting made of in hatters? Mercury, which would attack the central nervous systems of the workers when it became airborne.
What are the side effects of the mercury in the liquid for carroting? hatters blurring of vision, loss of balance, delusions, and uncontrolled twitching of the muscles
What were the side effects known as for carroting? hatter Danbury Shakes
What is a statement that was risen from the hatters? Mad as a hatter
What were coopers? tradesman who made casks, buckets, barrels, and containers for flour, gunpowder, tobacco, shipping, wine, milk, and other liquids
What was the name of the container that was used to ship tobacco? hogshead
How many containers id coopers make per year? millions
what were barrels called? casks
who made the casks (barrels)? tight coopers
what did coopers begin specializing in? making specific types of containers that they could mass produce quickly
What did the construction of a barrel take? skill, experience, and significant manual labor
Was it easy to make a perfect cask no, it was very difficult
What did a perfect cask look like? had a bulging round center and had sides that taper inward on both ends
Where did the coopers get the white oak staves? centers of mature trees
How would a cooper fashion the wooden parts? used axes and knives before gathering them in a circular formation and adding iron rings
How were the staves made flexible? heated
How were the staves pulled together? They used a tool called a windlass
What did the cooper use to band the iron rings? hickory hoops
How did the coopers make sure the barrel heads would fit tightly? They gut grooves into lips that were formed to make sure they fit tightly
Where would the cooper cut a hole in the barrel and what would they fill the holes with? The holes were cut in the top and on the side and they were closed with plugs
Why did coopers cut holes in the barrels? So you could see what was inside
Where does the word cooper come from? The Middle English word couper which means tub or container
Were mason important? yes
how did mason make their products? dug clay from the ground, mashed the clay to a certain consistency, took out debris, sometimes added sand or ashes, put in a wooden mold, and heated for up to 6 days
What was the place where mason mixed the mixture? treading pit
What was the debris that was taken out of the mixture for mason? sticks, rocks, and leaves
How were different colored bricks made? adding sand and ashes to the mixture
How was the mixture shaped for mason? placed in a wooden mold
How long would the molds dry for mason? the mixture would dry for a week or so before being moved to a drying shed where they would be stored for 6 weeks
How long was the brick fired and how many degrees Fahrenheit did the oven reach? 6 days and 2,000 degrees
What color would the bricks glow from the intense heat? yellow
How many bricks could be fired at a time and would they all be usable? up to 20,000 at a time, but not all would be usable
What did colonial printers print? books, newspapers, pamphlets, and other publications
What did the printers shops also serve as? mall centers
Where did the printers who printed newspapers get their paper? the paper mill
Where did the printers who printed newspapers get their ink? They made it in their shops
What was paper made from? linen and cloth
What was ink made from? tannin, iron sulfate, gum, and water
what happened first in the newspaper publication? the type was set
what was a type in a newspaper? a single piece of metal with a letter, number, or point of puncutation
How long could it take to write a single page of a newspaper? 25 hours of labor
Who was the type setting process by? an employee or apprentice of the printer known as the compositor
What was used to spread the ink over the type? an inking pad or a beater
what would the type be arranged and held with an apparatus called a composing stick
What was the stone in printing a large flat surface that held the work to be printed
what was the press in printing the machine that transferred the arranged lettering to a page
How did the press function you had to squeeze the paper against the arranged type with about 200 pounds of pressure to ensure the ink was deposited boldly and evenly on the paper.
What happened to the paper before the other side was printed? it was set aside to dry
Who was among the most famous colonial printers Benjamin Flanklin
what did Benjamin Franklin publish and where published newspapers and books from his printing press in Philidelphia
what was one of Benjamin Franklin's most famous publications Poor Richards Almanac a book of predictions, information, and advice
What was on of the earliest industries in the original 13 colonies? Cobbler
Who did the cobblers go with on a voyage to discover Jamestown? John Smith
What year, at the latest did the shoemakers arrive in Jamestown? 1610
What was the first step of the shoemaking process? made wooden lasts, or blocks of foot shaped wood carved into different sizes
Second step in shoemaking a leather "upper" was stretched over the last and fastened with glue until it was ready to be fastened to the sole
What happened to the sole of the shoe? The soul was pounded with metal tools and an awl was used to cut holes
what happened before the sole and upper were sewn together? the sole was removed from the last
what happened right before the shoe was done the shoe was cleaned, polished, and fitted with a heel
what happened once the shoe was completely made the shoe was hung up in the cobblers store
How long would it take to make a standard pair of shoes 8-10 hours
Why were the left and right shoes exactly the same? It was easier because they used the same pattern
Why were taverns important? hey were gathering places for townspeople and travelers
Why were taverns around every few miles on main roads? to accommodate weary and hungry travelers
What could you buy at a tavern? beer, ale, wine, and other liquors, as well as a good meal and a good nights sleep
What did people do at taverns? townspeople socialized, exchanged ideas, talked about local politics, and even made laws and declared action
What did the Raleigh tavern in Williamsburg Virginia serve for? served as the staging grounds to protest and monitor actions of the British Crown against them.
What did wheelwrites make? wheels for wagons, carriages, and riding chairs
What were the colonial roads like? Rocky and rugged
What conditions were the wheels made to withstand Rough
What additional things did wheel writes do built or repaired carts, wheelbarrows, and wagons
What did wheelwrights have to know education wise had to have precise measuring skills as well as knowledge of basic geometry
where were wheelwrights important farming regions
why were wheelwrights popular in farming regions? farmers needed wheeled vehicles to move their crops
What other skills were required to construct a wheel took the skills of metal working and carpentry
What did wheelwrights do to make the shape of the wheel wheelwrights cut, chiseled, fashioned, and shaped wheels from wood.
What else was also made of wood for wheelwrights the spokes and hubs
What were used for the exterior of the wheel iron rims
who made the iron rims for wheelwrights blacksmiths
What was the hardest part of the process the process of perfecting the mortise and tenon process where the wheelwright carved a cavity (mortise) in a piece of wood and shaped the tenon to fit in the cavity snugly.
why were the candles very important in colonial times They did not have the electric lights
who made candles in smaller towns women
who made candles in larger towns tradesmen called chandler
What would a chandler craft the wick with pieces of cotton or linen
What would be heated up so the wick would be dipped in it tallow or animal fat
How many times would the wick be dipped in the burning animal fat several times
When was the dipping finished when the candle was the desired size
What happened once the candle hardened The wick was trimmed and the candle was ready to be used
what happened to the candles that were made of tallow gave off unpleasant odors
What did chandlers make also make candles out of whale oil, they did not smell amazing, but they wee more durable than the tallow candles
what type of candle could rich people buy, and were not available to everyone candles made of beeswax
what candles did chandlers attempt to make candles using berries and bayberry syrup
Why did the berry candles not work They were very time consuming and not cost-effective
What special skills were needed to be a gun smith working with metal and wood
How long could apprenticeships last for gunsmiths up to 7 years
What did colonial gunsmiths mainly do repaired guns, axes, and other metal tools
Why were most firearms imported from England they were cheaper
What parts did gunsmiths specialize in, in England the barrel (the long tube through which the bullet passes stock (the wooden part of the gun that serves as a grip and holds the firing mechanisms), or fire lock(the firing mechanism)
How did specializing in one area help the gunsmiths kept production high and costs low
What was born from the specialization in one area of the gunsmiths marked the infancy stage of what became known as the assembly line system of production
where were most of the guns flintlocks America and England
what is a flintlock a piece of flint set in a movable cock
What happened when the trigger was pulled the cock fell causing the flint to strike a piece of steel, creating sparks
What would ignite the main charge in the barrel when the sparks came in contact with the gunpowder
Why do colonists need guns to hunt for their food and protect themselves from native Americans (in frontier lands) if nessesary
What did American gunsmiths produce the long rifle, a hunting rifle that was used in America's frontier lands
where was the rifle used Pennsylvania and Kentucky
What did the long rifle allow hunter to do kill deer from long distances
The General store often served as as gathering point
What did people usually do at the general store debated politics or sifted through the ltest European imports
What were some products sold at the general store Coffee, produce, cheeses, and candles
What did merchants sell at the General stores metal goods, tins, wrought-iron decorations, playing cards, barrels, furs, guns, clothing, and anything else imaginable that could be sold
What did farmers sell at the general stores extra meat, vegetables, and eggs to sell or trade
What was the most numerous of colonial craftsman Silversmiths
Why could Silversmith business often be difficult many wealthy citizens imported their silver objects from England
How were some silversmiths in America forced to make their livings importing silverware from England and selling it
How would silversmiths get their silver bought old silver pieces off of citizens
what did many silversmiths also call themselves goldsmiths
what relatively original items did the silversmiths (goldsmiths) make spoons, buttons, and shoe buckles.
What did silversmiths (goldsmiths) also do repair items
where did silversmiths fashion their objects from thick pieces of metal called ingots
What purpose did the ingot serve for the silversmiths the ingot would be hammered upon an anvil until it was thin enough. then it was placed over a stake where it was shaped and smoothed
what was the piece polished with for a silversmith pumice, decomposing limestone (known as Tripoli) and powdered red iron ore (known as jeweler's rouge)
what was religion for many colonists a central part of their lives
what did most villages and cities have for religion churches or meeting houses
what varied depending on the location in the colonies for religion houses of worship
where did the puritan population practice their faith meetinghouses
what is a meeting house multi-purpose buildings that served not only as houses of worship, but for political and social functions as well
what did the puritans practice practiced a "pure" form of Christianity and followed strict rules that governed their lives
what were the puritans intolerant of other religion groups, or "radicals" who spoke out against their ways
what happened in the middle colonies for religion different religious groups practiced in different establishments.
where was religious diversity highest middle colonies
what practicing populations were in the middle colonies Quakers, Roman Catholics, Protestants, Catholics, Lutherans, Jews, and others
Who practiced their religion in traditional looking religious establishments southern colonies
while most citizens in the southern colonies belonged to the Church of England, what different secs of Christianity were there Anglicans and Baptists
when was the separation between the church and the state completed by the time the constitution was written