Astronomy Astronomy Chapter 3 Last 31-48

Question Answer
When did Copernicus live? about 500 years ago
Which of the following was not observed by Galileo? stellar parallax
One of the "nails in the coffin" for Earth centered universe was Galileo's observations of the moons and Jupiter
When we see Venus in a full phase, what phase would Earth be in as seen by a hypothetical Venetian? full
Which of the following is not one of, nor follows directly from Kepler's laws? The force of attraction between any two objects decreases with the square of the distance between their centers
Kepler's third law, p2=a3, means that All of the above are correct
From Kepler's third law, a hypothetical planet that is twice as far from the Sun as Earth should have a period of more than 2 Earth years
From Kepler's third law, an asteroid with an orbital period of 8 years lies at an average distance from the Sun equal to 4 astronomical units
Kepler's second law, which states that as a planet moves around its orbit it sweeps out equal areas in equal times, means that a planet travels faster when its nearer to the Sun and slower when its farther from the Sun,
All the following statements are true. Which one follows directly from Kepler's third law? Venus orbits the Sun at a slower average speed than Mercury.
What do scientists mean by verifiable observations? statements that a person can, in principle, verify for himself ot herself.
What is meant by a scientific paradigm? a generally well established scientific theory or set of theories
What is meant by a hypothesis? an explanation for a phenomenon that makes a prediction
What is meant by Occam's Razor? the idea that scientists should prefer the simpler of two models that agree equally well with observations
Which of the following statements about scientific theories is not true? A theory cannot be taken seriously by scientists if it contradicts other theories developed by scientists over the past several hundred years.