Chapter 18

Question Answer
Acceptable use policy A document that explains to users what they can and cannot do on the corporate network network or with company data, and the penalties for violations
Access control list A record or list of the resources that a user, device, or program has access to on a corporate network, server, or workstation
anti-malware software Utility software that can prevent infection, scan a a system, and detect and remove all types of general malware
antivirus software Utility software that can prevent infection, scan a system, and detect and remove virues
ATA secure erase Standards developed by the American National Standards Institute that dictate how to securely erase data from solid-state device such as a USB flash drive
biometric authentication To authenticate to a network, computer, or other computing device by means of biometric data
biometric device An input device that inputs biological data about a person; the data can identify a person's fingerprints
BitLocker Drive Encryption A utility in Windows 8/7/Vista that is used to lock down a hard drive by encrypyting the entire Windows volume
BitLocker To Go A Windows utility that can encrypt data on a USB flash drive and restrict access by requiring a password
botnet A network of zombies or robots
brute force attack A method to hack or discover a password by trying every single combination of characters
BYOD A corporate policy that allows employees or students to connect their own devices to the corporate network
cellular network analyzer Software and hardware that can monitor cellular networks for signal strength of cell towers
certificate of destrution Digital or paper documentation, which ensures that data has been destroyed beyond recovery
Certification Authority An organization such as VeriSign, that assigns digital certificates or digital signatures to indivduals or organizations
Chain of custody Documentation that tracks evidence used in an investigation and includes exactly what, when, and from whom the evidence was collected
commercial license As applied to software, the rights to use the software, which have been assigned to the user by the software vendor
computer infestation See malicious software
copyright The right to copy the work that belongs to the creators of the works or others to whom the creator transfers this right
data loss prevention Methods that protect corporate data from being exposed or stolen
degusser A machine that exposes a magnetic storage device such as a hard drive or tape drive
dictionary attack A method to discover or crack a password by trying words in a dictionary
digital certificate A code used to authenticate the source of a file or document or to identity and authenticate a person or organization sending data over a network
digital rights management Software and hardware security limitations meant to protect digital content and prevent piracy
email filtering To search incoming or outgoing email messages for matches kept in databases, searching for known scams and spammers to protect against social engineering
email hoax An email message that is trying to tempt you to give out personal information or trying to scam you
Encrypted File System A way to use a key to encode a file or folder on a NTFS volume to protect sensitive data
End User License Agreement A digital or printed statement of your rights to use or copy software
Enterprise license A license to use software that allows an organization to install multiple instances of the software
entry control roster A list of people allowed into a restricted area and a log of any approved visitors that is used and maintained by security guards
gpresult The Windows command to find out group policies that are currently applied to a system for the computer or user
gpupdate The Windows command to refresh local groups policies as well as group policies set in Active directory
grayware A program that is potentially harmful or potentially unwanted
intrusion detection system Software that can run on a UTM appliance, router, server, or workstation to monitor all network traffic and create alerts when suspicious activity happens
intrusion prevention system Software that can run on a UTM appliance, router, server, or workstation to monitor all network traffic, create alerts, and prevent the threatening traffic from burrowing into the system
key fobb A device, such as a type of smart card, that can fit conveniently on a key chain
keylogger A type of spyware that tracks your keystrokes, including passwords, chat room sessions, email messages, documents, and anything you type of a computer
Local Security Policy A windows administrative tools snap-in in Control Panel that can manage the group of policies in the Local computer policy
Local Users and Groups For business and professional editions of Windows, a Windows utility console that can be used to manage user accounts
LoJack A technology by Absolute Software used to track the whereabouts of a laptop computer, data is erased if stolen
malicious software Any unwanted program that is transmitted to a computer without the user's knowledge and that is designed to do varying degrees of damage to data and software
malware Any unwanted program that is transmitted to a computer without the user's knowledge and that is designed to do varying degrees of damage to data and software
malware definition Information about malware that allows anti-malware software to detect and define malware
malware encylopedia Lists of malware, including symptoms and solutions, often maintained by manufacturers or anti-malware
malware signatuture Information about malware that allows anti-malware software to detect and define malware
man-in-the-middle-attack An attack that pretends to be a legitimate website, network, FTP site. or person in a chat session in order to obtain private information
mantrap A physical security technique of using two doors on either end of a small entryway where the first door must close before the second door can open
multifactor authentication To use more than one method to authenticate access to a computer, network, or other resource
mutual authentication To authentication in both directions at the same time, as both entities confirm the identity of the other
Network Places Wizard See user accounts
Next-generation firewall A firewall that combines firewall software with anti-malware software and other software that protects resources on a network
noncompliant system A system that violates security best practices, such as out-of-date anti-malware
personal license A license to use software that gives the right to install one instance of the software
phishing Sending an email message with the intent of getting the user to reveal private information
privacy filter A device that fits over a monitor screen to prevent other people from viewing the monitor from a wide angle
quarantined computer A computer that is suspected of infection and is not allowed to use the network, is put on a different network
ransomware Malware that holds your computer system hostage with encryption techniques until you pay money or a time period expires when the encrypted content is destroyed
remote backup application A cloud backup service on the Internet that backs up data to the cloud and is often used for laptops, tablets, and smart phones
remote wipe Remotely erases all contents, email, photos, and other data from a device to protect your privacy
RFID badge A badge worn by an employee and used to gain entrance into a locked area of a building
root certificate The original digital certificate issued by a certification authority
rootkit A type of malicious software that loads itself before the OS boot is complete and can hijack internal Windows components
security token A smart card or other device that is one factor in multifactor authentication
shoulder surfing As you work, other people secretly peek at your monitor screen to gain valuable information
site license A license that allows a company to install multiple copies of software, or to allow multiple employees to execute the software from a file server
smart card Any small device that contains authentication information that can be keyed into a sign-in windows
smart card reader A device that can read a smart card used to authenticate a person onto a network
social engineering The practice of tricking people into giving out private information or allowing unsafe programs into the network or computer
software priacy The act of making unauthorized copies of original software, which violates the Federal Copyright Act of 1976
spear phishing A form of phishing where an email message appears to come from a company you already do business with
spoofing A phishing technique where you are tricked into clicking a link in email message
spyware Malicious software that installs itself on your computer or mobile device to spy on you
strong password A password that is not easy to guess
tailgating When someone who is unauthorized follows an employee through a secured entrance to a room or building
TPM A chip on a motherboard that holds an encryption key required at startup to access encrypted data on the hard drive
Trojan A type of malware that tricks you into downloading and opening it by substituting itself for a legitimate program
Unified Threat Management A computer, security appliance, network appliance, or Internet that stands between the internet and a private network
User Accounts A Windows utility that can be used to change the way windows sign-in works and to manage user accounts
Virus A program that often has an incubation period, is infectious, and is intended to cause damage
Wi-Fi analyzer Hardware or software that monitors a Wi-fi networkto detect devices
Windows Defender Anti-malware software embedded in Windows 8 that can detect, prevent, and clean up a system infected with viruses
Windows Firewall A personal firewall that protects a computer from intrusion and is automatically configured
worm An infestation designed to copy itself repeatedly to memory, on the drive space
zero-day attack When a hacker discovers and exploits a security hole in software before the developer of the software can develop and provide a protective patch
zombie A computer that has been hacked, and the hacker is using the computer to run repetitive software in the background without the knowledge of its user