Emrgncy Dstr & Prp Emergency Disaster & Preparedness, 2e (2016)

Term Definition
access and functional need an individual’s inability to get to services or limitations on functioning that require additional response assistance before, during, and/or after an incident
advanced life support (ALS) emergency medical procedures that exceed basic life support techniques; require an additional level of training beyond what an EMT receives; can be performed by a paramedic
all-hazards planning a general preparation and training approach that addresses many risks, which can be applied to a wide range of emergency and disaster scenarios.
ambulatory related to walking; when a patient is able to walk without assistance
antidote a substance that can counteract a form of disease or poison
assay a type of test, typically performed in a laboratory, to analyze the composition of a substance
assets personnel, equipment, and other supplies available to a community in a disaster response
assistance center a place for victims to go to access resources and get aid after a disaster
Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) government office that helps state and local agencies and healthcare systems
prepare for and respond to the medical needs of an affected community or area; also known as Office of the ASPR, part of the Department of
Health and Human Services
at-risk populations a term used to describe patients who are particularly vulnerable for negative
outcomes before and after a disaster
autoclaving a method of treating infectious medical waste by exposing it to high heat steam and pressure to destroy microorganisms; also called “steam sterilization”.
bag-valve mask a handheld device that can be squeezed, released, and squeezed to force oxygen into the lungs of a patient with breathing difficulties
basic life support (BLS) a set of noninvasive methods for lifesaving that include emergency cardiovascular care (ECC)
behavioral health providers professionals who promote well-being by helping individuals with trauma and stress recovery; preventing and intervening in mental illness and substance abuse and addiction; also known as mental health specialists or providers
biosafety protocols safety procedures for handling infectious biological materials
bioterrorism the deliberate release of dangerous and/or highly infectious viruses, bacteria, or toxic agents that can cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants.
Biothreat Team the laboratory team tasked with handling and testing specimens that might pose a biological threat
blast injury the physical damage sustained from an explosion’s pressure, being thrown back against something, flying debris, or from fire that develops
burnout a condition of extreme emotional exhaustion; symptoms include fatigue, irritability, difficulty concentrating or sleeping, lack of enthusiasm or desire, and physical symptoms, such as headaches and gastrointestinal upsets
casualty collection point a place to gather injured victims to sort them by injury category and to
stabilize their medical conditions before sending them on to hospitals for care
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) a step-by-step process used to restart the beating of a heart and breathing when both have ceased; includes chest compressions and providing breaths
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the federal agency responsible for tracking infectious diseases and working with states and other nations to prevent their spread and providing guidance to departments of health on emergency and disaster preparedness
Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) a FEMA-run center to provide training programs to the nation’s response managers and providers
chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear, and high-yield explosive events (CBRNE) emergencies and disasters that involve chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear, and high-yield explosives and require high levels of decontamination
and protective gear for responders; also shortened to CBRN without explosive events
cohorted patients patients with similar symptoms who are suspected of having the same disease
and grouped together for care
cold zone an area adjacent to the warm zone that is far enough away from a release site and decontamination processes to be contamination-free; where decontaminated patients are sorted for transport to the proper treatment facility
Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) local volunteers trained with organizing and response skills, such as fire safety, light search and rescue, basic medical aid for victims
comprehensive emergency management a planning and action approach to managing disasters that encompasses four phases: prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.
computed tomography (CT) a type of x-ray scanning that creates a series of images of a specific area of the body; also known as CAT scans
contact tracing the tracking down and monitoring of each person who had contact with someone ill with or exposed to an infectious disease
contaminated patient someone who has been exposed to a harmful chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear substance and may have the substance on their clothes and/or in or on their bodies
continuity of care ongoing, coordinated medical care received from the same group of healthcare
professionals
credential proof of specific professional education and skills
crisis intervention counseling discussion in individual and/or group sessions that helps responders relieve stress and recover from their experience
decontamination the removal or neutralization of harmful chemical, biological, radiological, or
nuclear substances or agents
defusing a brief, informal procedure (10-30 minutes) used by behavioral health professionals to help disaster workers express their thoughts and feelings about events
Department of Defense (DOD) the federal department that oversees military planning and branches of services
Department of Health (DOH) a city, county, or state department that addresses public health
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) the federal department that addresses public health; handles or oversees the health-related aspects of emergency and disaster preparedness and response; includes the CDC and the Office of the ASPR
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) the federal agency in charge of domestic security and promoting comprehensive emergency management; includes the Federal Emergency Management Agency
disaster an emergency that requires outside assistance from the federal government. See also natural disaster.
Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) state or regional healthcare teams with varied healthcare professionals and paraprofessionals; deployed by the National Disaster Medical System to supplement local medical resources
Disaster Mortuary Operations Response Team
(DMORT)
a team that provides victim identification and mortuary services; deployed by the National Disaster Medical System
Disaster Technical Assistance Center (DTAC) a website by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration that provides resources for the behavioral health of the community and responders
domestic terrorism a terrorist attack accomplished by a US citizen or group
don and doff the proper process of putting on and taking off personal protective equipment
droplet precautions the protective procedures health professionals follow when they are examining a patient with symptoms of a respiratory infection; includes wearing a face mask
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) a rare, deadly, and highly infectious disease
emergency from a public health perspective, an incident that threatens public safety, health, and welfare, where a group(s) of people require immediate or a higher level of care
emergency action plan (facility) a written plan that identifies and explains the actions to be taken in an emergency; required by OSHA for companies with more than 10 employees
emergency and disaster preparedness the act of making plans to prevent, respond to, and recover from emergencies and disasters
emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) a higher level of resuscitation than CPR that requires additional training; includes clearing of obstructions, applying defibrillator or respiratory mask
emergency exercises simulated drills designed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of an emergency operations plan
emergency information form (EIF) a form that lists medical conditions, medications, and other needed information for vulnerable populations
emergency kit a collection of essentials that an individual and/or family may need in the event
of an evacuation
Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) a mutual aid agreement that facilitates sharing resources, personnel, and equipment across state lines during disasters
Emergency Management Institute (EMI) a training organization run by FEMA to strengthen emergency management core competencies
emergency medical technician (EMT) a health professional who is trained in ambulance medical operations and procedures
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) the community-oriented system for providing emergency treatment and transportation to hospitals directed by a dispatcher through phone calls, usually to 9-1-1
emergency operations center (EOC) a place where leaders of the response gather to coordinate efforts, receive reports, and issue public communications
emergency operations plan (EOP) a plan that designates who will be in charge and who will coordinate the efforts of all responding parties
Emergency Preparedness Rule a set of requirements from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services that healthcare facilities must adhere to if they want federal reimbursement
Emergency Prescription Assistance Program (EPAP) a federal program that provides 30-day supplies of prescribed medications and supplies to victims in a disaster
Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals (ESARVHP) a system where credentialed health professionals can volunteer to work during public health and other emergencies
Emergency Use Authorization a special approval issued by the FDA to allow the use of unapproved medical products in an emergency when there are no available alternatives
emerging infectious disease an infectious disease that was previously unknown in a particular place or appears in a changed and more dangerous form
epidemic when an infectious disease outbreak spreads to a wider region
epidemiologist a disease detective, who tracks disease causing agents, investigating how they originated and how to stop them
evacuation the organized, phased, and supervised withdrawal of people from a dangerous or potentially dangerous area
external quality assurance review an evaluation of the processes and facility (e.g., a laboratory) by an official assessor from outside the organization
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) federal agency responsible for addressing disasters, working with state and local leaders to coordinate the deployment of federal resources, providing management and response staff in the provision of shelter, food, water, and
needed supplies to victims
first responders the initial response professionals to arrive at an incident scene, such as emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, firefighters, and police
fit-tested the act of fitting and testing a respirator to ensure that the proper size, make, model, and style has been selected.
flash flooding sudden, fast-moving water
focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) ultrasound scans to quickly diagnose the nature and degree of traumatic injuries
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an agency responsible for protecting the public’s food, medication, and cosmetic supply; part of the Department of Health and Human Services
forensic radiology imaging tests and analysis done to seek evidence for a criminal investigation
Good Samaritan Law legal protection for those who help someone who has been injured or is at risk for further injury
healthcare coalition (HCC) a group of healthcare facilities and organizations that have collaborative partnerships to support each other and share resources in an emergency or disaster
Hospital Incident Command System (HICS) a chain of command system in a hospital based on the ICS that clarifies roles and responsibilities in the handling of an emergency.
hot zone the area immediately next to the site of a hazardous agent release; this area requires the highest level of personal protective equipment
incident an emergency event or a disaster event needing response from a specific set of responders or facility; a scalable term
incident commander an individual tasked with leading a specific response effort, including communicating with responders, assigning tasks, and designating location of incident command center.
incident command center (ICC) the location where responders meet to discuss the response and identify next steps
incident command system (ICS) a chain-of-command structure based on the National Incident Management System for organizing and coordinating emergency or disaster response at any level
incineration a method of waste disposal where waste is burned at temperatures ranging from 1,800°F to 2,000°F (982°C to 1,093°C).
index patient the first medically identified patient in an area with a particular condition, often an infectious disease
infection control procedures standard operating procedures used by healthcare facilities to manage infectious diseases
isolation the separation of people known to have an infectious disease from those who are healthy
job action sheets the written responsibilities of healthcare professionals participating in an Incident Command System.
The Joint Commission the national organization for certifying hospitals, long-term care facilities, behavioral health facilities, and ambulatory care clinics; also known as The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Organizations
just-in-time training the specific, last-minute training provided to volunteers to perform specific tasks for an incident response
Laboratory Response Network (LRN) a network of state and local public health, federal, and military laboratories that responds to any infectious disease, bioterrorist, or chemical threats. See also national laboratory, reference laboratory, and sentinel laboratory.
litter bearers people who move victims on stretchers
Local Emergency Management Agency/Authority (LEMA) the community governmental agency or council responsible for planning and overseeing comprehensive emergency management for a community or area
mass care services the providing of food, water, and shelter for victims, overseen by FEMA or the LEMA but run by nonprofit NGOs, particularly the American Red Cross
mass casualty incident an event that results in numerous fatalities and/or serious injuries
mass prophylaxis the large-scale dispensing of vaccines, medicines, or antidotes during public health emergencies to reduce the spread of disease.
medical countermeasures (MCMs) medical products (drugs or devices) that can be used in a mass dispensing in case of a public health epidemic, disaster, or CBRN attack
Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) a federal program that organizes and deploys healthcare volunteers; MCRs are organized by local communities and states to enhance emergency and public health resources
medical shelter an evacuation shelter outfitted with medical staff and equipment to care for people with medical needs that cannot be properly addressed in general evacuation shelters
medical surge a sudden increase in the number of patients due to an emergency or disaster; also known as a “patient surge”
medical waste any infectious or potentially infectious materials created in healthcare settings. See also autoclaving, incineration, sharps waste, and steam sterilization.
memorandum of understanding (MOU) an agreement among medical facilities to receive patients from one another in case of an emergency or disaster; can also be written to conduct lab tests or share medical personnel
mitigation strategies and structures to prevent or reduce the damage of identified hazards
mutual aid the agreements between neighboring communities or institutions to assist one another in an emergency or disaster
National Animal Care & Control Association (NACA) a professional organization for animal shelters and animal welfare workers that keeps a database of volunteers willing to assist in animal rescue, care, and sheltering in a disaster
National Disaster Animal Response and Recovery Teams (NDARRTs) volunteer response groups created to help victims reunite with their lost pets following a disaster
National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) a
federal system of rapid deployment of medical
teams, equipment, and supplies to a disaster area; also moves ill and injured patients from the disaster to a safe area, and provides care for patients in hospitals away from the disaster site
National Incident Management System (NIMS) an operational structure and template for communities to organize themselves and coordinate their response activities in a similar manner; enables all levels of government, private sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work together in response
national laboratory the highest level of lab in the Laboratory Response Network; the national laboratory is responsible for isolating and identifying specific strains of biological and chemical agents.
National Laboratory Training Network (NLTN) a federal resource that provides laboratory training courses in clinical, environmental, and public health laboratory topics.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) the federal agency that tracks weather systems and alerts communities when a potentially dangerous weather event may occur; includes the National Weather Service
National Response Framework (NRF) the structure, template, and principles for how the federal government organizes itself and plans for disasters; provides guidelines for other levels of government and responding organizations to do the same
National Veterinary Response Team (NVRT) the NDMS team responsible for helping animals in a disaster
natural disaster a disaster caused by a meteorological or geological event, such as a blizzard, earthquake, flood, heat wave, hurricane, wildfire, and tornado
Nongovernmental organization (NGO) an organization that is not managed by the government
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) the federal agency that oversees workplace safety and health regulations and guidance
Office of Emergency Management another name for the state, county, or city Local Emergency Management Agency/Authority
outbreak describes when a highly infectious disease causes people to get sick and/or die in one community or area
pandemic describes when a highly infectious disease rapidly spreads around the world, causing widespread illness and death
personal protective equipment (PPE) the clothing and equipment that protects the wearer from exposure to a hazard, such as gloves, gowns, and face masks
Point of Dispensing (POD) a temporary station for dispensing vaccines, medicines, or antidotes on a large scale, set up by a local government agency and supported by federal resources; not to be confused with Point of Distribution (also POD).
Point of Distribution (POD) a temporary station for distributing needed supplies for disaster victims, such as water, food, blankets, diapers, and other necessities; not to be confused with Point of Dispensing (also POD)
preparedness a phase in comprehensive emergency management that determines how a community or an organization will respond to an emergency
Presidential Disaster Declaration when the governor of a state requests that the president designates a federal disaster to enable the deployment of federal resources
presumptive result a positive test result indicating a suspicious biological or chemical agent; this result requires confirmation by the next higher laboratory level
Prevention and Mitigation of Risks the first phase of comprehensive emergency management that includes a process to identify specific hazard risks (THIRA) and then implement strategies and build structures to prevent or reduce the damage from these hazards
Psychological First Aid a behavioral health intervention that involves listening and providing support and practical help for individuals who have experienced an emergency or disaster
push pack a ready-to-deploy container with enough medical supplies and medications to treat thousands of patients.
quarantine the separation of people who have been exposed to an infectious disease and may be infected but are not yet ill from healthy people.
Radiological Emergency Response Team (RERT) a group of imaging specialists that train and serve during response to radiological or nuclear emergencies and disasters
reagent the specific reacting agent needed for a specialized laboratory test
Recovery the phase in comprehensive emergency management that includes activities and programs to help a community rebuild, restore, heal, and create a new normal; also general term for rebuilding and restoring.
reference laboratory the second level of the Laboratory Response Network, which has the reagents and technology to conduct sophisticated tests for biological and chemical agents.
respirator an apparatus that cleans the air for breathing, commonly used with face masks as part of personal protective equipment
response the immediate actions to save lives, protect property, and the environment, and meet basic human needs; a phase in comprehensive emergency management when plans, responders, and resources are put into action.
reunification the process of bringing back together those who have been separated, especially important for recovery during an emergency or disaster
risk communication the relaying of information about a health crisis or disaster to the public in a timely and accurate way that does not unduly heighten concern and fear
scalable the ability to adjust to fit something; especially important to adjust the planning strategies, resources, and size of the response from small to large according to the size and nature of the incident
scope of practice the professional range of expertise and legally-approved responsibilities and skills for each professional
select agent an biological or chemical substance that has been identified as having the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety
sentinel laboratory the initial and lowest laboratory level in the Laboratory Response Network
service animal any animal that is individually trained to perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or emotional disability; often a service dog
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) a potentially fatal pneumonia caused by a virus
sharps anything with a sharp, cutting edge or point; must be collected as dangerous and potentially infectious; includes hypodermic needles, syringes or tubing, scalpels, and pipettes.
shelf life the length of time a medication is usable before it reaches its expiration date
shelter-in-place to remain in a home, facility, or designated protective area during a disaster
Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) a method of triage that makes it possible for only a few rescuers to rapidly evaluate a large number of patients and move them to treatment centers for more detailed assessment.
social distancing the establishment of a barrier or space between infected individuals and others to reduce the transmission of highly infectious diseases.
staging area an area in which patients are gathered and wait to be transported during an evacuation or other emergency
standard precautions health and safety protocols that protect the patient, healthcare worker, and others from infection; including hand washing, personal protective equipment, and instrument sterilization
Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) a storage system of medicines, vaccines, antidotes, and medical supplies maintained by the federal government; deployed for disasters
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services dedicated to supporting behavioral health with resources
Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA) a set of survey processes to pinpoint risks, their likelihood of occurring in a community or facility, the potential damage, and the resources needed to address them
to bag to manually provide ventilation for a patient by squeezing and releasing a hand-held bag-valve mask to force oxygen into a patient’s lungs
Trauma and Critical Care Team (TCCT) the operative and critical care team of professionals sent out by the NDMS in disasters to provide trauma care
triage a procedure for sorting victims according to their condition, treatment needs, and the resources that are available
triple packaging three-levels of secure packaging used in transporting highly infectious diseases
tsunami powerful waves that travel long distances and up onto shore, also known as a “tidal wave”
US Geological Survey (USGS) the federal agency that helps monitor and alert communities about potential geological disasters
Unidentified Patient Naming Convention a naming procedure that gives identifers to patients whose legal identities are unknown
unified command an approach in which all agencies or leaders with responsibility for handling the incident work together to establish and implement a single, coordinated response plan.
universal precautions the procedures established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for working with patients where there is any possibility of exposure to blood or bodily fluids; considered standard practice of infection control.
Veterinary Medical Assistance Teams
(VMATs)
volunteer response teams for emergencies and disasters organized through the American Veterinary Medical Association
Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (VOAD) a coalition of nonprofit groups that accept volunteers to train and deploy when needed
victim a person who is affected—including being evacuated or injured, losing loved one’s or property, or becoming ill—as a result of an emergency or disaster
warm zone an area at least 300 feet away, uphill, and upwind from the site of a release site or a hazardous substance that is set up for the decontamination of patients
whole community preparedness the planning, training, and response efforts of an entire community to ensure that all citizens are prepared for emergencies and disasters