A&P Eaddy ch 11 Sensory

Term Definition
sensory recepor part of nervous system that detects a stimulus
sensory receptors structure Free Dendrite-for pain nd tempature, Modified ending- for touch Specialize cells -such as rods nd cones of retina
Special sense(localize) Vision -receptors of eye Hearing-Inner Ear, Equilibrium(balance)-inner ear, Taste-in tounge, Smell -upper nasal cavity
General Sense (widely through body) Pressure,Tempature,Pain,Touch-from receptors in skin nd internal organs, Position-receptors in muscle tendon nd joints
Protected Eye Structures Skull bone-form wall of eye cavity nd protects posterior eye ball, Palpebra(upper&lower eyelids) anterior eye,Eye Lashes/Brows-keep foreign matter out,Tears-from lacrimal glands lubricates nd have enzymes against infection,Conjunctiva-produce mucus to lub
Convergence process when muscle pull on eyeball so both eyes center on visual field ;It produce clar retina image
2 Sensory Cranial Nerves Optic(cranial nerve II)carry visual from photorecptors to brain, Opthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve (V)carry impulse of pain touch nd temperature from eye nd surrounding part of brain
3 cranial nerves carry motor impulse Oculomotor nerve (III) Largest,voluntary nd involuntary to all but 2 eye muscle, Trochlear nerve(IV) superior oblique extrinsic eye muscle, Abducens nerve(VI)lateral rectus extrinsic eye muscle
eyeball 3 coats/tunics Fibrous,Vascular, Nervous
vitreous body Glasslike:soft jelly like substance that fills the entire space Posterior to lens, help maintain shape of eyeball
Aqueous Humor watery fluid that fill eyeball anterior to lens nd helps maintain cornea convex curve , Produce nd drained from eye
Cornnea anterior portion of fibrous tunic thats forward curving, transparent, and colorless
Cilary muscle & suspensory ligament Anterior of vascular tunic which control shape of lens
Accomodation Process adjusting lens thickness to allow vision at near nd distances;Occurs when ciliary muscle is smooth so cells are thin nd long when relax but short nd wide when contracted
Accomodation for distant vision Ciliary muscle relaxes nd thins, enlarging the central opening, This enlarge opening pulls the vsuspensory ligaments Keeping lens more flatten
Accomodation for close vision Ciliary muscle contracts nd flattens Relaxing suspensory ligaments The elastic lens recoils nd get thicker
optic disk blind spot; no photoreceptors in area of optic nerve
rhodopsin light sensative pigment in rod a complex moleculesynthesized from vitamin a
Visual Process Extrinsic eye muscle produce convergence, Light refracts throu cornea nd aquamous humor, Muscle of iris adjust pupil,Cilary adjust lens (accomodation)Light stimulates retinal receptors cells (rods&cons)
Visual Process Light cont. to refract throu vitreous body nd passes through superficial layers of retina, Optic nerve transmitt impulse to brain, Visual areas in occipital lobe cortex recieve nd interpret the impulses
macula lutea the fovea within a yellowish spot
fovea centralis tiny depressed area near optic nerve; contains highest concentration of cones it is point of sharpest vision
Cones Concertrated at center of retina,Bright light, Pigment sensative to red green or blue; Respond to color
Hyperopia frsightedness, usualy abnormal short eyeball,light rays focus behimd the retina, Glasses w/convex lenses that increase light refracion can correct hyperopia
Myopia nearsightdness, eye defect related to development, Eyeball is too long or cornea bends the light rays too sharp that focus point in front of retina
Presyopia "old eye" age related lost of elasticity in the lens it no longer thickens to bring near objects into focus, Bifocal glasses combine different lens
Astigmatism visual defect cause by irregularity in curvature of the cornea or lens Result light rays are incorrectly bent causing blurr vision
Inclusion Conjunctivitis an acute eye infection cause by chlamydia traachomatis
Most common eye injury is a laceration or scratch of the cornea cause by foreign body
Enucleation Surgery remove the eyeball
Cataract opacity (cloudiness)of lens or the lens outer covering, an early stage cause loss of visual acuity(sharpness) Untreated leads to complete vision loss (Diabetes nd certain meds known to accelarate cataracts
Glaucoma Excess pressure of the aqueous humor, produce constantly from blood after circles through eye reabsorbed into blood stream
Diabetic retinopathy Damage to the small blood vessels of the choroid results in bleeding nd death of retinal neurons
Retinal detachment Retina seperate from underlying chroiod layer result from trauma or an accumulation of fluid or tissues between layers may develope slowely or sudden If complete detachment may go blind
Macular degeneration Refer to macula lutea(yellow area of retna)Age related macular degeneration AMD IN dry form of amd material accumalates on retina causing gradual vision loss In "wet" form abnormal blood vessels grow under retina causing detachment Some forms hereditary
Neonatal Conjunctivies Ophthalmia neonatrum acute infection cause by organism acquired during passage during birth canal usually cause by std
Ear is sense organ for hearing nd equilibrium divided into 3 sections Outer ear-projection and a canal ending at a membrane Middle ear Air space containing three small bones Inner ear -most complex nd contains the sensory receptors for hearing nd equipbrium
The Outer Ear Visible projection portion the Pinna aka Auricle detecs sound wave nd external auditory canal aka Meatus leads into ear deeper parts Tympathic membrane aka eardrums at end of external auditory nd seperates canal from middle ear cavity,
In first part of the canal contains many wax producing Ceruminous Glands The wax aka cerumen
The middle ear cavity is small flattem space contains 3 bones Or Ossicles 1stMalleus-hammer shape 2nd Incus-Shape like anvil 3rd Stapes shape like stirrup of saddle
Auditory tube Aka Eustachian connects middle ear cavity w/throat or pharynx,Tube allow pressure to equalize on 2 sides of tympanic membrane
Inner Ear #Balance Internal portion describe as labyrinth Outter portion filled w fluid called Perliymph,Inner compose of hollow bone compromising bony labyrinth,Tubes nd chamber of Mrmbranous labyrintg are filled w/fluid called Endolymph
Inner ear has 3 divisions Vestibule (consost of 2 chambers the utricle nd saccule Receptors for balance) Semicircular canals (3projecting tubes located posterior The base has receptors for balance Cochlea(Coiled like a snail shell Receptors for hearing)
Within the cochlea the membraneous labyrinth is known as Cochlear Duct Bisects bony labyrinth into superior portion,the Vestibular duct,and inferior portion Thetympanic duct
Spiral Organ The long strip of hair cells
Tectorial membrane The tips of the hair cells embedded in a gelatinous
dilation Enlargement of pupil
vestibulocochlear nerve aka auditory or acoustic , Motion sets up nerve impulse that travel to brain, a branch of 8th cranial nerve
Sensory receptors in the inner ear those related to equilibrium located in vestibule and semicircular canals, receptors respond to accelaration are ciliared hair like the hearing receptors
otolithic membrane weighed w/ small crystals of calcium carbonate called otoliths, the force of gravity pulls membrane downward
Each receptor is called Macula (spot)
Semicircular canal go off in 3 directions the Crista respond to horizontal rotation(dancersoin) One in Superior canal to forward nd backward rotation,(Somersaulting) One in posterior respond to left-right(Cartwheel
vestibular nerve nerve fiber from the vestibule nd from semicircular canals forms this; which joins the cochlear nerve to form the 8th cranial nerve vestibulocochler*(Acustic)
otitis media infection nd inflammation of middle ear cavity
myringotomy cuttin the tympanic membrane
otitis externa inflammation of external auditory canal may be cause by fungus or bacterium Common in those live in hot climates (Swimmers ear)
otosclerosis a hereditary bone disorder that prevents normal vibration of stapes
Conductive hearing loss interference w/ passage off sound waves from the outside to inner ear, wax / a foreign body may be obstruct the external canal
Sensorineural hearing loss may involve in cochlea , acustic nerve or the brain area concern w/ hearing. Result from long term drug use or exposure to various infection prolong exposure to loud noises common in young people
Presbycusis age related hearing loss reflecting the progress atrophy of hair cells ; Important to address the old in low-pitch tones
Vertigo a person has a sensation of spinning or sensation that enviroment is spinning; fluid continues to move in the semicircular
Gustation sense of taste; recptors in tounge nd 2 different nerves that carry taste impulse to brain
Taste buds gustatory sensory organ are located mainily on superior surface of tounge Enclose in raised projection called papillae(gives tounge it rough texture nd help manipulate food when chewing)
within each taste bud modified epithelial cells(the gustatory cells) Respond to one of 5 basic taste Sweet- to simple sugars, Salty- to sodium, Sour- detect hydrogen ion, Bitter- to various organic compounds, Umami-a pungent or savory taste based on response to amino acids glutamate nd aspartate Spiciness such a capsacin
The nerves of taste included the facial nd glossopharyngeal; interpretation of pulse impulse is probably accomplish by brain lower frontal cortex
the importance sense of smell olfaction; smell can trigger memories nd other psychological response also important in sexual behavior;; olfactory nerve carries smell impulse directly to olfactory center in brain temporal cortex as well as limbic system
tactile corpuscles found mostly in skin nd around hair follicle, area of back of hand nd neck has fewer receptor nd less sensative to touch
the tempature receptors are free nerve ending
General sense Receptors for touch pressure tempatre position and pain
Propriceptors widespread receptors are aided in this function by internal ears equilibrium receptors
Kinesthesia used to describe dynamic or mivement associated, aspects of proprioception, info recieve is needed for muscle coordination nd is important in walkin running nd more complicated skills such as playing mucle instrument
ambly/o dimness
e- out
lute-/o yellow
ophthalm/o eye
-opia disorder of eye or vision
presby- old
-scope instrument for examination
-cusis hearing
equi- equal
lith stone
myring/o tympanic membrane
ot/o ear
-stomy creation of an opening
tympan/o drum
alges/i pain
-esthesia sensation
kine movement
narc/o stupor
propri/o own