Month: January 2018

Chapter 5 – Cooper ABA

Term Definition
Validity the extent to which data obtained from measurement are directly relevant to the target behavior and the reason for measuring it (measuring what you want to measure)
Accuracy the extent to which observed values of data collected match the event that was observed
Observed Value the quantitative label produced by measuring an event (data collected)
True Value A measure obtained by procedures that are independent of the procedures that produced the data being evaluated and for which the researcher has taken “extraordinary precautions to insure that all possible sources of error have been avoided or removed”
Measurement Bias error in measurement that is likely to be in one direction
Reliability the consistency of measurement to the extent to which repeated measurement of the same event yields the same values
Direct Measurement the behaviors of interests are the exact behaviors being measured (direct observation)
Indirect Measurement when what is actually measured is in some way different from the target behavior (questionnaires, parent report)
Continuous Measurement the form of measurement in which all instances of the response class of interest are detected and recorded during the observation period
Discontinuous Measurement the form of measurement in which some instance of the response class of interest may not be detected
Observer Drift any unintended change in the way an observer uses a measurement system over the course of an investigation that results in measurement error; often entails a shift in the observers interpretation of the original definitions of target behavior
Naive Observer an observer who is unaware of the study’s purpose and/or experimental conditions in effect during a given phase or observation period. Data obtained by a __________ are less likely to be influenced by observers’ expectations
Observer Reactivity influence on the data reported by an observer that results from the observer’s awareness that others are evaluating the data he reports
Calibration any procedure used to evaluate the accuracy of a measurement system, and when sources of error re found, to use the information to correct or improve the measurement system
Interobserver Agreement (IOA) the degree to which two or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events
Believability the extent to which the researcher convinces themselves and others that the data are trustworthy and deserve interpretation (IOA most commonly used to index)
Total Count IOA based on comparing the total count recorded by each observer per measurement period; calculated by dividing the smaller number by the larger number and multiplying by 100% (simplest indicator of IOA for event recording data)
Mean Count-Per-Interval IOA the average percentage of agreement between the counts reported by two observers in a measurement period comprised of a series of smaller counting times (more conservative that Total Count IOA)
Exact Count-Per-Interval IOA the percentage of total intervals in which two observers recorded the same count (most stringent description of IOA for most data sets obtained by event recording)
Trial-By-Trial IOA an IOA index for DT data based on comparing the observers’ counts (0 or 1) on a trial-by-trial, or item-by-item basis (more conservative and meaningful than Total Count IOA)
Total Duration IOA used to calculate IOA for total duration measurement; calculated by dividing the shorter duration by the longer duration and multiplying by 100
Mean Duration-Per-Occurrence IOA an IOA index for duration per occurrence data; calculated by computing the average percentage of agreement of the durations reported by two observers for each occurrence of the target behavior (more conservative and meaningful for total duration data)
Interval-By-Interval IOA (Point-To-Point) an index of IOA obtained by interval recording or time sampling (calculated by comparing the 2 observers recordings of the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the bx in each interval and dividing the # of agreement intervals by the total # of intervals x 100
Scored-Interval IOA an IOA index based ONLY on the intervals in which either observer recorded the occurrence of the behavior; use for behaviors that occur at low rates because it ignores the intervals in which agreement by chance is highly likely
Unscored-Interval IOA an IOA index based ONLY on the interval in which either observer recorded the nonoccurrence of the behavior; recommended to use for behaviors that occur at high rates because it ignores the intervals in which agreement by chance is highly likely
Calculate Scored-Interval IOA calculated by dividing the # of intervals in which the 2 observers agreed that the bx occurred by the # of intervals in which one or both observers recording the occurrence of the bxand multiply by 100
Calculate Unscored-Interval IOA calculated by dividing the number of intervals in which the two observers agreed that the behavior did not occur by the number of intervals in which one or both observers recording the nonoccurrence of the behavior and multiply by 100

Unit 1 Synonyms

Question Answer
alongside adjacent
nearby adjacent
neighboring adjacent
dismount alight
descend alight
land alight
touch down alight
unproductive barren
sterile barren
desolate barren
arid barren
upset disrupt
displace disrupt
disorder disrupt
ruling house dynasty
regime dynasty
preview foretaste
anticipation foretaste
indication foretaste
sprout germinate
shoot up germinate
grow germinate
burgeon germinate
monotonous humdrum
uneventful humdrum
prosaic humdrum
boring humdrum
speed hurtle
fly hurtle
race hurtle
catapult hurtle
fling hurtle
imply insinuate
intimate insinuate
never-ending interminable
ceaseless interminable
question interrogate
query interrogate
repay recompense
compensation recompense
repair renovate
fix up renovate
recondition renovate
synopsis resume`
job-history resume`
grumpy sullen
surly sullen
peevish sullen
morose sullen
dribble trickle
drizzle trickle
drip trickle
a small amount trickle
petty trivial
insignificant trivial
trifling trivial
cease-fire truce
armistice truce
wicked vicious
malicious vicious
savage vicious

Chapter 7 – Cooper ABA

Term Definition
Correlation When systematic variation between 2 events is found and can be used to predict the relative probability that one event will occur, based on the presence of the over event
Experimental Control When a predictable change in behavior can be reliably produced by the systematic manipulation of some aspect of the individual’s environment (analysis dimensions of the 7 Dimensions of ABA)
Internal Validity The extent to which an experiment convincingly shows that changes in behavior are a function of the IV and not the result of uncontrolled or unknown variables
Confounding Variables
4 Important Elements of Behavior Behavior is:
• Individual
• Continuous
• Determined
• Behavior variability if extrinsic to the organism
6 Components of Experiments in Applied Behavior Analysis 1. At least 1 subject
2. At least 1 behavior (DV)
3. At least 1 setting
4. At least 1 treatment
5. A measurement system and ongoing analysis of data
6. An experimental design
Experimental Question
Single-Subject Design
Dependent Variable
Experimental Control
Extraneous Variables
Independent Variable
Experimental Design
Parametric Analysis
Steady/Stable State Responding A pattern of responding that exhibits very little variation in its measured dimensional quantities over a period of time
Baseline Logic Refers to experimental reasoning inherent in single-subject experimental designs
3 Parts of Baseline Logic 1. Prediction
2. Verification
3. Replication

Each of these elements depends on an overall experimental approach called steady state strategy

Prediction
Verification
Replication
Steady State Strategy Repeated exposure of a given subject to a given condition while trying to eliminate extraneous influences on behavior & obtaining a stable pattern of responding before introducing the next condition
Baseline
Stable Baseline
Ascending Baseline/ Descending Baseline
Variable Baseline
Prediction
Practice Effects
Affirmation of the Consequent
Verification
Replication
5 Main Experimental Designs 1. Multiple Baseline
2. Changing Criterion
3. Reversal
4. Alternating Treatments
5. Withdrawal
Alternating Treatments Design Rapid alteration between 2 or more treatments
Multiple Baseline Design Staggered implementation of the intervention in a step-wise fashion across subjects, settings, or behaviors
Reversal (withdrawal) Design Alternation between baseline and a particular intervention
Changing Criterion Design Reinforcement or punishment is contingent upon a certain level of behavior, which changes in a step-wise fashion

Bowman’s Vocab List3

Question Answer
allude refer to inderectly
disseminate scatter/spread widely
dote to show excessive fondness for
exhort urge strongly; warn/appeal
implicate to show to be involved with something (illegal/dishonest)
lament to feel express or grief
monetary relating to money
pensive deeply in thought
pomp a showy or dignified display
trauma severe injury/emotional shock
feckless careless/irresponsible
stilted artificially stiff/in a formal manner

Chapter 3 – Cooper ABA

Question Answer
Behavioral Assessment __________ involves a variety of methods including direct observations, interviews, checklists, and tests to identify and define target behaviors
Target Behavior The specific behavior selected for change
Behavior Checklist __________ provides description of specific behaviors and conditions under which each behavior should occur
Anecdotal Observation or ABC Recording __________ yields an overall description of a client’s behavior patters. Observer records antecedents, behavior, and consequences
Ecological Assessment recognizes the complex interrelationships between environment (e.g., physiological conditions, physical aspects of environment, interactions with others, home environment, and past reinforcement history) and behavior
Reactivity the effects of an assessment process on the behavior being assessed. Most likely occurs when the observation is obtrusive
Habilitation the degree to which a person’s repertoire maximizes short and long term reinforcers for that individual and for others, and minimizes short and long term punishers
Relevance of Behavior Rule A target behavior should only be selected when it can be determined that the behavior is likely to produce reinforcement in the person’s natural environment after the behavior change program is terminated
Behavioral Cusp it exposes the individual’s repertoire to new environments, new reinforcers and punishers, new contingencies, and new responses
Pivotal Behavior A behavior that once learned produces corresponding modifications to co-variations in other adaptive untrained behaviors (e.g., self-initiating)
Normalization __________ refers to the use of progressively more typical environments, expectations, and procedures “ to establish or maintain personal behaviors which are as culturally normal as possible
Function-Based Definition A __________ designates responses as members of the targeted response class solely by their common effect on the environment
Topography-Based Definition A __________ identifies instances of the target behavior by the shape or form of the behavior

ABA 2

Question Answer
a schedule of reinforcement requiring a varying number of responses for reinforcement variable ratio
an alteration in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object or event as the result of a motivating operation value-altering affect
The stimulus component of an unconditioned reflex; a stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without prior learning unconditioned stimlus
a stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus unconditioned reinforcer
The contingent withdrawel of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement or the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a specified time time-out from positive reinforcement
The basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior; includes the relations between the antecedent stimulus, behavior, and consequence three term contingency
The conventional procedure requires one behavior and two antecedent stimulus conditions. Responses are reinforced in the presence of the Sd but not in the presence of the S-delta. stimulus discrimination training
Using differential reinforcement to produce a series of gradually changing response classes; each response class is a successive approximation toward a terminal behavior shaping
changing a contingency of reinforcement by gradually increasing the response ratio or the extent of the time interval; it results in a lower rate of reinforcement per response, time, or both. schedule thinning
A rule specifying the environmental arrangements and response requirements for reinforcement; a description of a contingency of reinforcement. schedule of reinforcement
A stimulus in the presence of which a given behavior has not produced reinforcement in the past s-delta
The contingent loss of reinforcers producing a decrease of the frequency of behavior response cost
A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment response class
A procedure in which the therapist physically intervenes as soon as the learner begins to emit a problem behavior to prevent completion of the target behavior. response blocking
The response component of a reflex; behavior that is elicited, or induced, by an antecedent stimlus. response behavior
A behavioral effect associated with abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedules ratio strain
The absense of responding for a period of time following reinforcement post reinforcement pause

ABA 1

Question Answer
6 characteristics of behavior 1. Involves action
2. Measure via frequency/duration/intensity
3. Can be observed/described/recorded
4. Have an impact on the environment
5. It is lawful; systematically influced by environment
6. Can be overt or covert
6 characteristics of behavior modification 1. Focus on behavior
2. Procedure based on behavioral principles
3. Emphasis on current environmental events
4. Precise description of procedure
5. Treatment implemented by people in everyday life
6. Measurement of behavior change
3 misconceptions about ABA / behavior modification 1. Relies on punishment
2.Leads to people controlling eachother
3. Dehumanizes people
Thorndike Law of Effect
3 purposes of behavioral assessment / baseline data 1. Determine if treatment is necessary
2. Information to choose treatment
3. Determine if the treatment was responsible for the change
4 recording methods 1. Continuous
2. Interval
3. Time sample
4. Product
(4) Dimensions of continuous measurement 1. Frequency
2. Intensity
3. Duration
4. Latency
3 Features of a good target behavior definition 1. Action verbs
2. Objective
3. Unambiguous

Reactivity Recording a behavior influence the behavior
Why is interobserver reliability/agreement important? 2+ people independently observe the same behavior and agree that the behavior is occurring.
What 2 variables are illustrated in a behavior modification graph? Which is on the X and Y axis? Y (Ordinate) = Behavior
X (Abscissa) = Time
Why aren't data points connected across phase change lines? To distinguish different phases more easily
Single-subject design 1 treatment. IE Multiple baselines / A-B-A-B
5 factors that influence effectiveness of a reinforcer 1. Immediacy
2. Consistency
3. Motivating Operations
4. Individual Differences
5. Intensity
(1) Controlled behaviors vs (2) Controlling behaviors 1. Target behavior controlled by self-management project
2. The process of controlling behavior via self-management
(6) Typical components of a self-management package 1. Goal-Setting/Self-Monitoring
2. Antecedent Manipulation
3. Behavioral Contracting
4. Arranging Reinforcers/Punishers
5. Social Support
6. Self Instruction/Praise
3 antecedent procedures that could be used to increase a behavior 1. Presenting/eliminating SD of target behavior.
2. Establishing/Abolishing Operations
3. Decrease/increase response effort
Behavioral definition of extinction Eliminating consequences of a behavior
3 things that happen during extinction bursts 1. Novel Behavior
2. Behavior increases
3. Emotional/aggressive responses
5 problems associated with punishment 1. Aggressive/emotional side effects
2. Escape/avoidance behaviors
3. Negative reinforcement to punisher
4. Punishment teaches modelers to punish
5. Ethical issues

Age of Exploration

Question Answer
What are the names of Columbus's ships. Nina, Pinta, San Maria
What was the biggest land mammal before Columbus? llama
What was the only food that could grow at high altitudes? Potatoes
What animal was brought over that destroyed native american crops. pigs
What crop was developed by genetic engineering that helped native americans? Corn
Where did Magellan set out to find a western route to. Asia
Who conquered the Aztecs? Hernado Cortes
What are peninsulares? Spanish settlers
Who claimed Canada for France? Jaques Cartier
What was the 1st English colony? Jamestown
What was Jamestown biggest staple crop? Tobacco

ABA 2

Question Answer
What is an antecedent stimulus? Discriminative Stimulus. Stimulus Delta. Prompt
What is an SD? An antecedent stimulus that set the occasion for a behavior to be likely to be reinforced.
What is an S delta? An antecedent stimulus that acts as a cue that a behavior will not be reinforced.
(1) What is stimulus discrimination training? (2) What is the outcome? 1. Process of developing stimulus control. Reinforce a behavior only in the presence of an SD. Reinforcement and extinction are used.
2. Stimulus control. The behavior is more likely to occur in the presence of an SD than a S-delta
(1) Define stimulus discrimination and (2) provide a novel example 1. Behavior occurring in the presence of SD, but not S-delta.
2. Kids playing "red light, green light"
*Define a reflex A response elicited by an antecedent stimulus
Provide a definition of respondent conditioning using an example. Specify US, UR, NS, CS, CR, the process and the outcome. Manipulation of antecedent stimuli. US(food) UR(salivate) NS(bell) -> CS(bell) CR(salivate)
Describe the factors that influence the effectiveness of respondent conditioning. (6) 1. Salience 2. Intensity of Stimulus 3. Timing of NS/US 4. Consistent pairing 5. Number of Pairings 6. Previous Exposure to the NS
Define and comment on the effectiveness of the following. 1. Delay Conditioning. 2. *Trace Conditioning. 3. Simultaneous Conditioning. 4.Backward Conditioning. 1. NS > US (before NS ends) (most effective)
2. NS > US (after NS ends) (most effective)
3. NS + US (same time) (somewhat effective)
4. US > NS (least effective)
Describe higher-order conditioning using an example. NS + CS. Clicker training
(1) Define shaping. (2) Provide a novel example (3) (include criteria of when to use shaping) 1. Differential reinforcement of successive approximations towards a target behavior. Can happen naturally, or intentionally. Involves reinforcement and extinction.
2. Playing the game "hot or cold"
3. Develop new topographies/dimensions of behavior.
When is it appropriate to use shaping? When instructions/modeling/prompting don't work.
What are 2 characteristics of the starting behavior in a shaping procedure? 1. Person must already exhibit the starting behavior.
2. Must be a behavior you can build on to achieve the target behavior.
Provide an example of how a problem behavior may be developed through shaping Giving in to tantrums
Provide an example of the typical implementation of shaping. Lever pressing. Define target behavior (and determine if shaping is appropriate). Identify starting behavior. Choose shaping steps. Choose reinforcer. Reinforce successive approximations.
Describe how an extinction burst may play a role in shaping Extinction bursts cause variability in behavior to occur
Define (1) prompt and (2) distinguish between stimulus prompts and response prompts. 1. antecedent stimulus or event that controls a response. Gets the behavior to occur in the proper context so the behavior can be reinforced.
2. Response: Prompts via person. Stimulus: within or extrastimulus. Change, or add stimulus.
*Describe 4 types of response prompts and fading procedures associated with these. Most to least intrusive: physical, model, gestural, verbal
(1) What is the transfer of stimulus control and (2) why is it important? 1. Getting the behavior to occur in the presence of the natural SD without prompts.
2. To enable the behavior to occur in the proper context independently
(1) Describe a behavioral chain and (2) provide a novel example 1. A sequence of behaviors.
2. Cooking
(1) What is a task analysis and (2) why is it important when teaching a behavioral chain? 1. Identification of all stimuli (SDs) and responses in a behavioral chain.
2. There are minor details we often overlook
(1) How are backward chaining and forward chaining similar (2) and how are they different? 1. They both train sequences of behavior, and require a task analysis. Prompting/fading is required for both
2. Forwards starts from the start, backwards starts from the end. Backwards can be easier to start because it is reinforced from the first step.
Describe the total task procedure Execute the whole s-r chain in each training trial. Use graduated guidance in each trial. Fade to shadowing, then fade shadowing. Useful when the chain is not too long/complex
*When is it (1) appropriate to use a chaining procedure and (2) when is it not? 1. When the behavior is a "can't do" problem
2. When the behavior is a "won't do" problem
Describe the 4 components of BST 1. Instructions 2. Modeling 3. Rehearsal 4. Feedback
Describe the factors that influence the effectiveness of (1) Instructions (2) Modeling 1. Must be able to understand the learner. Teacher must be credible. Learner must pay attention.
2. Model must have high status or similarity. Model must be reinforced. Complexity is appropriate for the learner. Proper context. Variety of exemplars.
For what types of skills is BST most appropriate? parenting/assertiveness/abduction prevention/social/gun play prevention. New behaviors that can be simulated via role play. Learner must be able to follow instructions and imitate model.
*Identify and describe 4 possible (and common) categories of behavioral functions Positive/negative social/automatic
Identify and describe three major methods for conducting a functional assessment of a problem behavior 1. Indirect Observation
2. Direct Observation
3. Functional Analysis
Distinguish between (1) direct and (2) indirect methods of functional assessment and describe the pros and cons of each 1. Observation using ABC data. Objective
2. Interview/questionnaire. Subjective/memory based
Why is generalization important in a behavior modification program? So the behaviors occurs in all the appropriate circumstances; not just in those like the training situation
Identify and describe the 7 (first 5) strategies for promoting generalization 1. Reinforce instances of generalization
2. Train skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement
3. Modify natural contingencies
4. Incorporate wide range of relevant stimulus situations
5. Incorporate common stimuli
Identify and describe the 7 (last 2) strategies for promoting generalization 6. Teach a range of functionally equivalent responses
7. Incorporate self-generated mediators of generalization.
Describe the factors that influence the effectiveness of (1) Rehearsal (2) Feedback 1. Occurs immediately after instructions and modeling. Proper context. Immediate reinforcers/praise. Work from easy to hard behaviors/situations.
2. Praise correct behavior immediately (always must be something to praise) and be descriptive.